Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Dietary Modification - Vegan Diet

Urinary concentrations of organophosphate and carbamate pesticides in residents of a vegetarian community.

Abstract Title: Urinary concentrations of organophosphate and carbamate pesticides in residents of a vegetarian community. Abstract Source: Environ Int. 2016 Nov ;96:34-40. Epub 2016 Aug 31. PMID: 27588700 Abstract Author(s): T Berman, T Göen, L Novack, L Beacher, L Grinshpan, D Segev, K Tordjman Article Affiliation: T Berman Abstract: Few population studies have measured urinary levels of pesticides in individuals with vegan, vegetarian, or organic diets. The objectives of this study were to evaluate whether a vegan/vegetarian diet was associated with increased exposure to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides, and to evaluate the impact of organic consumption on pesticide exposure in vegans and vegetarians. In the current pilot study conducted in 2013-2014, we collected spot urine samples and detailed 24h recall dietary data in 42 adult residents of Amirim, a vegetarian community in Northern Israel. We measured urinary levels of non-specific organophosphate pesticide metabolites (dialkylphosphates, (DAPs)) and specific metabolites of the current-use pesticides chlorpyrifos (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy)), propoxur (-isopropoxyphenol (IPPX)), and carbaryl (1-naphthol). Six DAP metabolites were detected in between 67 and 100% of urine samples, with highest geometric mean concentrations for dimethylphosphate (19.2μg/g). Creatinine-adjusted median concentrations of total DAPs and of TCPy were significantly higher in Amirim residents compared to the general Jewish population in Israel (0.29μmol/g compared to 0.16, p<0.05 for DAPs and 4.32μg/g compared to 2.34μg/g, p<0.05 for TCPy). Within Amirim residents, we observed a positive association between vegetable intake and urinary TCPy levels (rho=0.47, p<0.05) and lower median total dimethyl phosphate levels in individuals reporting that>25% of the produce they consume is organic (0.065μmol/L compared to 0.22, p<0.05). Results from this pilot study indicate relatively high levels of urinary organophosphate pesticide metabolite concentrations in residents of a vegetarian community, a positive association between vegetable intake and urinary levels of a chlorpyrifos specific metabolite, and lower levels of total dimethyl phosphate in individuals reporting higher intake of organic produce. Results suggest that consumption of organic produce may offer some protection from increased exposure to organophosphate pesticide residues in vegetarians. Article Published Date : Oct 31, 2016

Vegan-vegetarian low-protein supplemented diets in pregnant CKD patients: fifteen years of experience.

Abstract Title: Vegan-vegetarian low-protein supplemented diets in pregnant CKD patients: fifteen years of experience. Abstract Source: BMC Nephrol. 2016 Sep 20 ;17(1):132. Epub 2016 Sep 20. PMID: 27649693 Abstract Author(s): Rossella Attini, Filomena Leone, Silvia Parisi, Federica Fassio, Irene Capizzi, Valentina Loi, Loredana Colla, Maura Rossetti, Martina Gerbino, Stefania Maxia, Maria Grazia Alemanno, Fosca Minelli, Ettore Piccoli, Elisabetta Versino, Marilisa Biolcati, Paolo Avagnina, Antonello Pani, Gianfranca Cabiddu, Tullia Todros, Giorgina B Piccoli Article Affiliation: Rossella Attini Abstract: BACKGROUND: Pregnancy in women with advanced CKD becoming increasingly common. However, experience with low-protein diets in CKD patients in pregnancy is still limited. Aim of this study is to review the results obtained over the last 15 years with moderately restricted low-protein diets in pregnant CKD women (combining: CKD stages 3-5, proteinuria: nephrotic at any time, or > =1 g/24 at start or referral; nephrotic in previous pregnancy). CKD patients on unrestricted diets were employed for comparison. METHODS: STUDY PERIOD: January, 2000 to September, 2015: 36 on-diet pregnancies (31 singleton deliveries, 3 twin deliveries, 1 pregnancy termination, 1 miscarriage); 47 controls (42 singleton deliveries, 5 miscarriages). The diet is basically vegan; since occasional milk and yoghurt are allowed, we defined it vegan-vegetarian; protein intake (0.6-0.8 g/Kg/day), keto-acid supplementation, protein-unrestricted meals (1-3/week) are prescribed according to CKD stage and nutritional status. Statistical analysis was performed as implemented on SPSS. RESULTS: Patients and controls were similar (p: ns) at baseline with regard to age (33 vs 33.5), referral week (7 vs 9), kidney function (CKD 3-5: 48.4 % vs 64.3 %); prevalence of hypertension (51.6 % vs 40.5 %) and proteinuria>3 g/24 h (16.1 % vs 12.2 %). There were more diabetic nephropathies in on-diet patients (on diet: 31.0 % vs controls 5.3 %; p 0.007 (Fisher)) while lupus nephropathies were non-significantly higher in controls (on diet: 10.3 % vs controls 23.7 %; p 0.28 (Fisher)). The incidence of preterm delivery was similar (<37 weeks: on-diet singletons 77.4 %; controls: 71.4 %). The incidence of other adverse pregnancy related outcomes was non-significantly lower in on-diet patients (early preterm delivery: on diet: 32.3 % vs controls 35.7 %; birth-weight = <1.500 g: on diet: 9.7 % vs controls 23.8 %). None of the singletons in the on-diet series died, while two perinatal deaths occurred among the controls (p = 0.505). The incidence of small for gestational age (SGA<10th centile) and/or extremely preterm babies (<28th week) was significantly lower in singletons from on-diet mothers than in controls (on diet: 12.9 % vs controls: 33.3 %; p: 0.04 (Fisher)). CONCLUSION: Moderate protein restriction in the context of a vegan-vegetarian supplemented diet is confirmed as a safe option in the management of pregnant CKD patients. Article Published Date : Sep 19, 2016

Vegetarian, vegan diets and multiple health outcomes: a systematic review with meta-analysis of observational studies.

Abstract Title: Vegetarian, vegan diets and multiple health outcomes: a systematic review with meta-analysis of observational studies. Abstract Source: Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2016 Feb 6:0. Epub 2016 Feb 6. PMID: 26853923 Abstract Author(s): Monica Dinu, Rosanna Abbate, Gian Franco Gensini, Alessandro Casini, Francesco Sofi Article Affiliation: Monica Dinu Abstract: BACKGROUND: Beneficial effects of vegetarian and vegan diets on health outcomes have been supposed in previous studies. OBJECTIVES: Aim of this study was to clarify the association between vegetarian, vegan diets, risk factors for chronic diseases, risk of all-cause mortality, incidence and mortality from cardio-cerebrovascular diseases, total cancer and specific type of cancer (colorectal, breast, prostate and lung), through meta-analysis. METHODS: A comprehensive search of Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, The Cochrane Library and Google Scholar was conducted. RESULTS: Eighty-six cross-sectional and 10 cohort prospective studies were included. The overall analysis among cross-sectional studies reported significant reduced levels of body mass index, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and glucose levels in vegetarians and vegans versus omnivores. With regard to prospective cohort studies, the analysis showed a significant reduced risk of incidence and/or mortality from ischemic heart disease (RR 0.75; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.82) and incidence of total cancer (RR 0.92; 95% CI 0.87 to 0.98) but not of total cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, all-cause mortality and mortality from cancer. No significant association was evidenced when specific types of cancer were analyzed. The analysis conducted among vegans reported significant association with the risk of incidence from total cancer (RR 0.85; 95% CI, 0.75 to 0.95), despite obtained only in a limited number of studies. CONCLUSIONS: This comprehensive meta-analysis reports a significant protective effect of a vegetarian diet versus the incidence and/or mortality from ischemic heart disease (-25%) and incidence from total cancer (-8%). Vegan diet conferred a significant reduced risk (-15%) of incidence from total cancer. Article Published Date : Feb 05, 2016

Effect of a Brown Rice Based Vegan Diet and Conventional Diabetic Diet on Glycemic Control of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A 12-Week Randomized Clinical Trial.

Abstract Title: Effect of a Brown Rice Based Vegan Diet and Conventional Diabetic Diet on Glycemic Control of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A 12-Week Randomized Clinical Trial. Abstract Source: PLoS One. 2016 ;11(6):e0155918. Epub 2016 Jun 2. PMID: 27253526 Abstract Author(s): Yu-Mi Lee, Se-A Kim, In-Kyu Lee, Jung-Guk Kim, Keun-Gyu Park, Ji-Yun Jeong, Jae-Han Jeon, Ji-Yeon Shin, Duk-Hee Lee Article Affiliation: Yu-Mi Lee Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Several intervention studies have suggested that vegetarian or vegan diets have clinical benefits, particularly in terms of glycemic control, in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, no randomized controlled trial has been conducted in Asians who more commonly depend on plant-based foods, as compared to Western populations. Here, we aimed to compare the effect of a vegan diet and conventional diabetic diet on glycemic control among Korean individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants diagnosed with T2D were randomly assigned to follow either a vegan diet (excluding animal-based food including fish; n = 46) or a conventional diet recommended by the Korean Diabetes Association 2011 (n = 47) for 12 weeks. HbA1c levels were measured at weeks 0, 4, and 12, and the primary study endpoint was the change in HbA1c levels over 12 weeks. RESULTS: The mean HbA1c levels at weeks 0, 4, and 12 were 7.7%, 7.2%, and 7.1% in the vegan group, and 7.4%, 7.2%, and 7.2% in the conventional group, respectively. Although both groups showed significant reductions in HbA1C levels, the reductions were larger in the vegan group than in the conventional group (-0.5% vs. -0.2%; p-for-interaction = 0.017). When only considering participants with high compliance, the difference in HbA1c level reduction between the groups was found to be larger (-0.9% vs. -0.3%). The beneficial effect of vegan diets was noted even after adjusting for changes in total energy intake or waist circumference over the 12 weeks. CONCLUSION: Both diets led to reductions in HbA1c levels; however, glycemic control was better with the vegan diet than with the conventional diet. Thus, the dietary guidelines for patients with T2D should include a vegan diet for the better management and treatment. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term effects of a vegan diet, and to identify potential explanations of the underlying mechanisms. TRIAL REGISTRATION: CRiS KCT0001771. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2015

Are strict vegetarians protected against prostate cancer?

Abstract Title: Are strict vegetarians protected against prostate cancer? Abstract Source: Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Nov 11. Epub 2015 Nov 11. PMID: 26561618 Abstract Author(s): Yessenia Tantamango-Bartley, Synnove F Knutsen, Raymond Knutsen, Bjarne K Jacobsen, Jing Fan, W Lawrence Beeson, Joan Sabate, David Hadley, Karen Jaceldo-Siegl, Jason Penniecook, Patti Herring, Terry Butler, Hanni Bennett, Gary Fraser Article Affiliation: Yessenia Tantamango-Bartley Abstract: BACKGROUND: According to the American Cancer Society, prostate cancer accounts for∼27% of all incident cancer cases among men and is the second most common (noncutaneous) cancer among men. The relation between diet and prostate cancer is still unclear. Because people do not consume individual foods but rather foods in combination, the assessment of dietary patterns may offer valuable information when determining associations between diet and prostate cancer risk. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the association between dietary patterns (nonvegetarian, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, vegan, and semi-vegetarian) and prostate cancer incidence among 26,346 male participants of the Adventist Health Study-2. DESIGN: In this prospective cohort study, cancer cases were identified by matching to cancer registries. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to estimate HRs by using age as the time variable. RESULTS: In total, 1079 incident prostate cancer cases were identified. Around 8% of the study population reported adherence to the vegan diet. Vegan diets showed a statistically significant protective association with prostate cancer risk (HR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.49, 0.85). After stratifying by race, the statistically significant association with a vegan diet remained only for the whites (HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.86), but the multivariate HR for black vegans showed a similar but nonsignificant point estimate (HR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.41, 1.18). CONCLUSION: Vegan diets may confer a lower risk of prostate cancer. This lower estimated risk is seen in both white and black vegan subjects, although in the latter, the CI is wider and includes the null. Article Published Date : Nov 10, 2015
Therapeutic Actions DIETARY MODIFICATION Vegan Diet

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