CYBERMED LIFE - ORGANIC  & NATURAL LIVING

Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Dietary Modification - Paleolithic/Stone Age Diet

Paleolithic nutrition improves plasma lipid concentrations of hypercholesterolemic adults to a greater extent than traditional heart-healthy dietary recommendations.

Abstract Title: Paleolithic nutrition improves plasma lipid concentrations of hypercholesterolemic adults to a greater extent than traditional heart-healthy dietary recommendations. Abstract Source: Nutr Res. 2015 Jun ;35(6):474-9. Epub 2015 May 14. PMID: 26003334 Abstract Author(s): Robert L Pastore, Judith T Brooks, John W Carbone Article Affiliation: Robert L Pastore Abstract: Recent research suggests that traditional grain-based heart-healthy diet recommendations, which replace dietary saturated fat with carbohydrate and reduce total fat intake, may result in unfavorable plasma lipid ratios, with reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and an elevation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triacylglycerols (TG). The current study tested the hypothesis that a grain-free Paleolithic diet would induce weight loss and improve plasma total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and TG concentrations in nondiabetic adults with hyperlipidemia to a greater extent than a grain-based heart-healthy diet, based on the recommendations of the American Heart Association. Twenty volunteers (10 male and 10 female) aged 40 to 62 years were selected based on diagnosis of hypercholesterolemia. Volunteers were not taking any cholesterol-lowering medications and adhered to a traditional heart-healthy diet for 4 months, followed by a Paleolithic diet for 4 months. Regression analysis was used to determine whether change in body weight contributed to observed changes in plasma lipid concentrations. Differences in dietary intakes and plasma lipid measures were assessed using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Four months of Paleolithic nutrition significantly lowered (P<.001) mean total cholesterol, LDL, and TG and increased (P<.001) HDL, independent of changes in body weight, relative to both baseline and the traditional heart-healthy diet. Paleolithic nutrition offers promising potential for nutritional management of hyperlipidemia in adults whose lipid profiles have not improved after following more traditional heart-healthy dietary recommendations. Article Published Date : May 31, 2015

Plant-rich mixed meals based on Palaeolithic diet principles have a dramatic impact on incretin, peptide YY and satiety response, but show little effect on glucose and insulin homeostasis: an acute-effects randomised study. 📎

Abstract Title: Plant-rich mixed meals based on Palaeolithic diet principles have a dramatic impact on incretin, peptide YY and satiety response, but show little effect on glucose and insulin homeostasis: an acute-effects randomised study. Abstract Source: Br J Nutr. 2015 Feb 28 ;113(4):574-84. Epub 2015 Feb 9. PMID: 25661189 Abstract Author(s): H Frances J Bligh, Ian F Godsland, Gary Frost, Karl J Hunter, Peter Murray, Katrina MacAulay, Della Hyliands, Duncan C S Talbot, John Casey, Theo P J Mulder, Mark J Berry Article Affiliation: H Frances J Bligh Abstract: There is evidence for health benefits from 'Palaeolithic' diets; however, there are a few data on the acute effects of rationally designed Palaeolithic-type meals. In the present study, we used Palaeolithic diet principles to construct meals comprising readily available ingredients: fish and a variety of plants, selected to be rich in fibre and phyto-nutrients. We investigated the acute effects of two Palaeolithic-type meals (PAL 1 and PAL 2) and a reference meal based on WHO guidelines (REF), on blood glucose control, gut hormone responses and appetite regulation. Using a randomised cross-over trial design, healthy subjects were given three meals on separate occasions. PAL2 and REF were matched for energy, protein, fat and carbohydrates; PAL1 contained more protein and energy. Plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and peptide YY (PYY) concentrations were measured over a period of 180 min. Satiation was assessed using electronic visual analogue scale (EVAS) scores. GLP-1 and PYY concentrations were significantly increased across 180 min for both PAL1 (P= 0·001 and P< 0·001) and PAL2 (P= 0·011 and P= 0·003) compared with the REF. Concomitant EVAS scores showed increased satiety. By contrast, GIP concentration was significantly suppressed. Positive incremental AUC over 120 min for glucose and insulin did not differ between the meals. Consumption of meals based on Palaeolithic diet principles resulted in significant increases in incretin and anorectic gut hormones and increased perceived satiety. Surprisingly, this was independent of the energy or protein content of the meal and therefore suggests potential benefits for reduced risk of obesity. Article Published Date : Feb 27, 2015

Diet in acne: further evidence for the role of nutrient signalling in acne pathogenesis. 📎

Abstract Title: Diet in acne: further evidence for the role of nutrient signalling in acne pathogenesis. Abstract Source: Acta Derm Venereol. 2012 May ;92(3):228-31. PMID: 22419445 Abstract Author(s): Bodo C Melnik Article Affiliation: Department of Dermatology, Environmental Medicine and Health Theory, University of Osnabrück, Osnabrück, Germany. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: Recent evidence underlines the role of Western diet in the pathogenesis of acne. Acne is absent in populations consuming Palaeolithic diets with low glycaemic load and no consumption of milk or dairy products. Two randomized controlled studies, one of which is presented in this issue of Acta Dermato-Venereologica, have provided evidence for the beneficial therapeutic effects of low glycaemic load diets in acne. Epidemiological evidence confirms that milk consumption has an acne-promoting or acne-aggravating effect. Recent progress in understanding the nutrient-sensitive kinase mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) allows a new view of nutrient signalling in acne by both high glycaemic load and increased insulin-, IGF-1-, and leucine signalling due to milk protein consumption. Acne should be regarded as an mTORC1-driven disease of civilization, like obesity, type 2 diabetes and cancer induced by Western diet. Early dietary counselling of teenage acne patients is thus a great opportunity for dermatology, which will not only help to improve acne but may reduce the long-term adverse effects of Western diet on more serious mTORC1-driven diseases of civilization. Article Published Date : Apr 30, 2012

Dietary exposure to fumonisins and evaluation of nutrient intake in a group of adult celiac patients on a gluten-free diet.

Abstract Title: Dietary exposure to fumonisins and evaluation of nutrient intake in a group of adult celiac patients on a gluten-free diet. Abstract Source: Mol Nutr Food Res. 2012 Apr ;56(4):632-40. PMID: 22495987 Abstract Author(s): Chiara Dall'asta, Alessia Pia Scarlato, Gianni Galaverna, Furio Brighenti, Nicoletta Pellegrini Article Affiliation: Department of Organic and Industrial Chemistry, University of Parma, Parma, Italy. Abstract: SCOPE: The main objectives of this study were to estimate dietary fumonisin exposure and nutrient intake in a group of patients diagnosed with celiac disease compared to non-celiac subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS: The fumonisin level in 118 frequently consumed corn-based products was determined and dietary habits were recorded using a 7-day weighed food record. Data were then compared to those obtained for a control group. The fumonisin intake in the celiac patients was significantly higher than in controls, with mean values (± SE) of 0.395 ± 0.049 and 0.029 ± 0.006 μg/kg body weight per day, respectively. With regard to nutritional habits, celiac patients showed a preference for a high fat diet, coupled with a high intake of sweets and soft drinks and a low intake of vegetables, iron, calcium and folate. CONCLUSION: These findings may have serious health implications for the celiac population due to the widespread occurrence of fumonisins in most of the widely consumed gluten-free products, leading to continuous exposure to this particular mycotoxin. Moreover, the recorded nutritional quality of the celiac patient's diet raises concerns regarding its long-term adequacy and its potential impact on chronic conditions such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Article Published Date : Mar 31, 2012

Evaluation of biological and clinical potential of paleolithic diet. 📎

Abstract Title: [Evaluation of biological and clinical potential of paleolithic diet]. Abstract Source: Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig. 2012 ;63(1):9-15. PMID: 22642064 Abstract Author(s): Lukasz M Kowalski, Jacek Bujko Article Affiliation: Wydział Nauk o Zywieniu Człowieka i Konsumpcji Szkoła Główna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego, Warszawa. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: Accumulating evidences suggest that foods that were regularly consumed during the human primates and evolution, in particular during the Paleolithic era (2.6-0.01 x 10(6) years ago), may be optimal for the prevention and treatment of some chronic diseases. It has been postulated that fundamental changes in the diet and other lifestyle conditions that occurred after the Neolithic Revolution, and more recently with the beginning of the Industrial Revolution are too recent taking into account the evolutionary time scale for the human genome to have completely adjust. In contemporary Western populations at least 70% of daily energy intake is provided by foods that were rarely or never consumed by Paleolithic hunter-gatherers, including grains, dairy products as well as refined sugars and highly processed fats. Additionally, compared with Western diets, Paleolithic diets, based on recently published estimates of macronutrient and fatty acid intakes from an East African Paleolithic diet, contained more proteins and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, and less linoleic acid. Observational studies of hunter-gatherers and other non-western populations lend support to the notion that a Paleolithic type diet may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, cancer, acne vulgaris and myopia. Moreover, preliminary intervention studies using contemporary diet based on Paleolithic food groups (meat, fish, shellfish, fresh fruits and vegetables, roots, tubers, eggs, and nuts), revealed promising results including favorable changes in risk factors, such as weight, waist circumference, C-reactive protein, glycated haemoglobin (HbAlc), blood pressure, glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles. Low calcium intake, which is often considered as a potential disadvantage of the Paleolithic diet model, should be weighed against the low content of phytates and the low content of sodium chloride, as well as the high amount of net base yielding vegetables and fruits. Increasing number of evidences supports the view that intake of high glycemic foods and insulinotropic dairy products is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of acne vulgaris in Western countries. In this context, diets that mimic the nutritional characteristics of diets found in hunter-gatherers and other non-western populations may have therapeutic value in treating acne vulgaris. Additionally, more studies is needed to determine the impact of gliadin, specific lectins and saponins on intestinal permeability and the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2011
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Therapeutic Actions DIETARY MODIFICATION Paleolithic-Stone Age Diet

NCBI pubmed

The Acute Effect of Oleic- or Linoleic Acid-Containing Meals on Appetite and Metabolic Markers; A Pilot Study in Overweight or Obese Individuals.

Related Articles The Acute Effect of Oleic- or Linoleic Acid-Containing Meals on Appetite and Metabolic Markers; A Pilot Study in Overweight or Obese Individuals. Nutrients. 2018 Sep 26;10(10): Authors: Naughton SS, Hanson ED, Mathai ML, McAinch AJ Abstract Despite the abundance of plant-derived fats in our diet, their effects on appetite, and metabolic markers, remain unclear. This single-blinded 3-way cross-over pilot study aimed to investigate the ability of the two most abundant dietary plant-derived fats, oleic (OA) and linoleic (LA) acids, to modulate postprandial appetite and levels of circulating appetite and metabolic regulators in overweight/obese individuals. Meals were a high-carbohydrate control, a high-OA or a high-LA meal, and provided 30% of participants' estimated energy requirements. Meals were consumed after an overnight fast, with blood samples collected over 3¼ h. Appetite parameters were assessed via a validated visual analogue scale questionnaire. Hormones and other circulating factors were quantified using multiplex immunoassays. Eight participants (age 45.8 ± 3.6 (years), body mass index 32.0 ± 1.3 (kg/m²)) completed the study. All meals significantly increased fullness and reduced desire to eat. The control and high-OA meals significantly decreased prospective food intake. The high-LA meal increased ghrelin levels (p < 0.05), a hormone which encourages food intake. This was coupled with a significant acute increase in resistin levels, which impairs insulin signaling. Taken together, this study indicates that in overweight/obese individuals, high-LA meals may promote excess energy intake and alter glucose handling, though a larger cohort may be required to strengthen results. PMID: 30261617 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Low Serum Carotenoids Are Associated with Self-Reported Cognitive Dysfunction and Inflammatory Markers in Breast Cancer Survivors.

Related Articles Low Serum Carotenoids Are Associated with Self-Reported Cognitive Dysfunction and Inflammatory Markers in Breast Cancer Survivors. Nutrients. 2018 Aug 17;10(8): Authors: Zuniga KE, Moran NE Abstract Background: Dietary carotenoids may exert anti-inflammatory activities to reduce inflammation-driven cognitive impairments during cancer and cancer treatment. Our objective was to explore if cognitive function in breast cancer survivors (BCS) differs by serum carotenoid concentrations, and if blood carotenoids concentrations are associated with reduced systemic inflammation. Methods: Objective cognitive function and perceived cognitive impairment of 29 BCS and 38 controls were assessed cross-sectionally with the National Institutes of Health Toolbox Cognition Battery and The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Cognitive Function Questionnaire, respectively. Serum carotenoid and inflammatory marker (sTNF-RII, IL-6, IL-1ra, CRP) concentrations were measured. Results: Low-carotenoid BCS had more cognitive complaints compared to the low-carotenoid controls (Mdiff = -43.0, p < 0.001) and high-carotenoid controls (Mdiff = -44.5, p < 0.001). However, the cognitive complaints of high-carotenoid BCS were intermediate to and not different than the low-carotenoid BCS, or low- or high-carotenoid controls. BCS performed similarly to controls on all objective cognitive measures. Multiple linear regression, controlling for age and body mass index (BMI), demonstrated an inverse association between serum carotenoid concentrations and pro-inflammatory sTNFR-II (β = 0.404, p = 0.005) and IL-6 concentrations (β = -0.35, p = 0.001), but not IL-1ra or CRP. Conclusions: Higher serum carotenoid concentrations may convey cognitive and anti-inflammatory benefits in BCS. Future research should identify dietary components and patterns that support cognitive health in cancer survivors. PMID: 30126098 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

An international multi-centre cohort study of weight loss in overweight cats: Differences in outcome in different geographical locations.

Related Articles An international multi-centre cohort study of weight loss in overweight cats: Differences in outcome in different geographical locations. PLoS One. 2018;13(7):e0200414 Authors: Flanagan J, Bissot T, Hours MA, Moreno B, German AJ Abstract INTRODUCTION: Feline obesity is a worldwide concern which has recently been formally classified as a disease by the veterinary community. Management involves invoking controlled weight loss by feeding a purpose-formulated food in restricted quantities and altering physical activity. Most weight loss studies conducted in cats have been undertaken in research cat colonies from single geographic locations. The aim of this multi-centre cohort study was to determine the efficacy of a short-term dietary weight loss intervention in overweight pet cats across a range of geographical locations globally. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 3-month (median 13 weeks, inter-quartile range [IQR] 12-15 weeks) weight loss programme was conducted at 188 veterinary practices in 22 countries, and involving 730 cats, 413 of which completed the programme and had complete data available. All were fed commercially available dry or wet weight loss diets, and median energy intake was 53 kcal/kg BW0.711/day. The Royal Canin Ethics Committee approved the study, and owners gave informed consent. Owners completed behavioural questionnaires assessing begging, physical activity and quality of life (QOL). Linear mixed models were used to assess the respective influence of time, age, and initial body condition score (BCS) on weight loss and behavioural observations. RESULTS: At baseline, median age was 72 months (range 12-200 months) and median BCS was 8 (range 7-9). In all, 402/413 cats (97%) lost weight (mean 10.6±6.3%) during the programme at a rate of 0.8 ±0.50%/week. Based upon owner questionnaires, activity and QOL improved (both P<0.001), while begging behaviour decreased (P<0.001) during weight loss. The main factor influencing percentage weight loss was geographical location (P<0.001), with cats in North America losing less weight (median 7.2%, IQR: 4.4-10.4%) than those in both Europe (10.7%, 6-8-15.4%) and South America (10.0%, 6.2-15.4%). Differences in weight loss were also observed amongst countries (P<0.001), with cats in Argentina, Germany, and Italy losing more weight than cats in the USA, and cats in Germany also losing more weight than cats in Portugal. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: Most of the overweight cats enrolled in this international multi-centre study successfully lost weight. The reason for the differences in percentage weight loss amongst geographical locations requires further study. PMID: 30044843 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Mediterranean diet and physical functioning trajectories in Eastern Europe: Findings from the HAPIEE study.

Related Articles Mediterranean diet and physical functioning trajectories in Eastern Europe: Findings from the HAPIEE study. PLoS One. 2018;13(7):e0200460 Authors: Stefler D, Hu Y, Malyutina S, Pajak A, Kubinova R, Peasey A, Pikhart H, Rodriguez-Artalejo F, Bobak M Abstract BACKGROUND: Unhealthy diet may increase the risk of impaired physical functioning in older age. Although poor diet and limited physical functioning both seem to be particularly common in Eastern Europe, no previous study has assessed the relationship between these two factors in this region. The current analysis examined the association between overall diet quality and physical functioning in Eastern European populations. METHODS: We used data on 25,504 persons (aged 45-69 years at baseline) who participated in the Health Alcohol and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study. Dietary assessment at baseline used food frequency questionnaire, and the overall diet quality was evaluated by the Mediterranean diet score (MDS). Physical functioning (PF) was measured by the physical functioning subscale (PF-10) of the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey at baseline and three subsequent occasions over a 10-year period. The cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between the MDS and PF were examined simultaneously using growth curve models. RESULTS: Men and women with higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet had significantly better PF at baseline; after multivariable adjustment, the regression coefficient per 1-unit increase in the MDS was 0.39 (95% CI: 0.25, 0.52) in men and 0.50 (0.36, 0.64) in women. However, we found no statistically significant link between baseline MDS and the subsequent slope of PF decline in neither gender; the coefficients were -0.02 (-0.04, 0.00) in men and -0.01 (-0.03, 0.02) in women. DISCUSSION: Our results do not support the hypothesis that the Mediterranean diet has a substantial impact on the trajectories of physical functioning, although the differences existing at baseline may be related to dietary habits in earlier life. PMID: 30001406 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Correlates of overall and central obesity in adults from seven European countries: findings from the Food4Me Study.

Related Articles Correlates of overall and central obesity in adults from seven European countries: findings from the Food4Me Study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2018 02;72(2):207-219 Authors: Celis-Morales C, Livingstone KM, Affleck A, Navas-Carretero S, San-Cristobal R, Martinez JA, Marsaux CFM, Saris WHM, O'Donovan CB, Forster H, Woolhead C, Gibney ER, Walsh MC, Brennan L, Gibney M, Moschonis G, Lambrinou CP, Mavrogianni C, Manios Y, Macready AL, Fallaize R, Lovegrove JA, Kolossa S, Daniel H, Traczyk I, Drevon CA, Mathers JC, Food4Me Study Abstract BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To identify predictors of obesity in adults and investigate to what extent these predictors are independent of other major confounding factors. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Data collected at baseline from 1441 participants from the Food4Me study conducted in seven European countries were included in this study. A food frequency questionnaire was used to measure dietary intake. Accelerometers were used to assess physical activity levels (PA), whereas participants self-reported their body weight, height and waist circumference via the internet. RESULTS: The main factors associated (p < 0.05) with higher BMI per 1-SD increase in the exposure were age (β:1.11 kg/m2), intakes of processed meat (β:1.04 kg/m2), red meat (β:1.02 kg/m2), saturated fat (β:0.84 kg/m2), monounsaturated fat (β:0.80 kg/m2), protein (β:0.74 kg/m2), total energy intake (β:0.50 kg/m2), olive oil (β:0.36 kg/m2), sugar sweetened carbonated drinks (β:0.33 kg/m2) and sedentary time (β:0.73 kg/m2). In contrast, the main factors associated with lower BMI per 1-SD increase in the exposure were PA (β:-1.36 kg/m2), intakes of wholegrains (β:-1.05 kg/m2), fibre (β:-1.02 kg/m2), fruits and vegetables (β:-0.52 kg/m2), nuts (β:-0.52 kg/m2), polyunsaturated fat (β:-0.50 kg/m2), Healthy Eating Index (β:-0.42 kg/m2), Mediterranean diet score (β:-0.40 kg/m2), oily fish (β:-0.31 kg/m2), dairy (β:-0.31 kg/m2) and fruit juice (β:-0.25 kg/m2). CONCLUSIONS: These findings are important for public health and suggest that promotion of increased PA, reducing sedentary behaviours and improving the overall quality of dietary patterns are important strategies for addressing the existing obesity epidemic and associated disease burden. PMID: 29242527 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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