Therapeutic Actions Midwifery Care

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Knowledge and Attitudes of General Practitioners and Sexual Health Care Professionals Regarding Human Papillomavirus Vaccination for Young Men Who Have Sex with Men.

Related Articles Knowledge and Attitudes of General Practitioners and Sexual Health Care Professionals Regarding Human Papillomavirus Vaccination for Young Men Who Have Sex with Men. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018 Jan 18;15(1): Authors: Merriel SWD, Flannagan C, Kesten JM, Shapiro GK, Nadarzynski T, Prue G Abstract Men who have sex with men (MSM) may be at higher risk for human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers. Healthcare professionals' recommendations can affect HPV vaccination uptake. Since 2016, MSM up to 45 years have been offered HPV vaccination at genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics in a pilot programme, and primary care was recommended as a setting for opportunistic vaccination. Vaccination prior to potential exposure to the virus (i.e., sexual debut) is likely to be most efficacious, therefore a focus on young MSM (YMSM) is important. This study aimed to explore and compare the knowledge and attitudes of UK General Practitioners (GPs) and sexual healthcare professionals (SHCPs) regarding HPV vaccination for YMSM (age 16-24). A cross-sectional study using an online questionnaire examined 38 GPs and 49 SHCPs, including 59 (67.82%) females with a mean age of 40.71 years. Twenty-two participants (20 SHCPs, p < 0.001) had vaccinated a YMSM patient against HPV. GPs lack of time (25/38, 65.79%) and SHCP staff availability (27/49, 55.10%) were the main reported factors preventing YMSM HPV vaccination. GPs were less likely than SHCPs to believe there was sufficient evidence for vaccinating YMSM (OR = 0.02, 95% CI = 0.01, 0.47); less likely to have skills to identify YMSM who may benefit from vaccination (OR = 0.03, 95% CI = 0.01, 0.15); and less confident recommending YMSM vaccination (OR = 0.01, 95% CI = 0.00, 0.01). GPs appear to have different knowledge, attitudes, and skills regarding YMSM HPV vaccination when compared to SHCPs. PMID: 29346307 [PubMed - in process]

Effects of maternal heart sounds on pain and comfort during aspiration in preterm infants.

Related Articles Effects of maternal heart sounds on pain and comfort during aspiration in preterm infants. Jpn J Nurs Sci. 2018 Jan 17;: Authors: Küçük Alemdar D, Güdücü Tüfekcİ F Abstract AIM: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of providing prerecorded maternal heart sounds on the level of pain and comfort that are experienced by preterm infants during aspiration. METHODS: This was a randomized controlled trial. Preterm infants (N = 62) who were receiving care or treatment at a neonatal intensive care unit were eligible for participation in this study. Infants in the intervention group (n = 32) were provided with prerecorded maternal heart sounds before, during, and after aspiration, whereas the infants in the control group (n = 30) received routine care. For the collection of the data, the "Preterm Infant Information Form" was used to record natal and postnatal information of the preterm infant, the "Premature Infant Pain Profile," assessed the level of pain, and the "Premature Infant Comfort Scale," assessed the level of comfort. RESULTS: There was a significant difference observed between the groups' pain levels during aspiration; however, the difference was not significant before and after aspiration. Furthermore, there was a significant difference observed between the groups' comfort levels prior to aspiration before and during aspiration; however, the difference was not significant after aspiration. CONCLUSION: Intervention with maternal heart sounds during aspiration effectively reduced pain and provided comfort to the premature infants. PMID: 29345047 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Reliability and Criterion-Related Validity Testing (construct) of the Endotracheal Suction Assessment Tool (ESAT©).

Related Articles Reliability and Criterion-Related Validity Testing (construct) of the Endotracheal Suction Assessment Tool (ESAT©). J Clin Nurs. 2018 Jan 18;: Authors: Davies K, Bulsara M, Ramelet AS, Monteroso L Abstract AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To establish criterion-related construct validity and test-retest reliability for the Endotracheal Suction Assessment Tool© (ESAT©). BACKGROUND: Endotracheal tube suction performed in children can significantly affect clinical stability. Previously identified clinical indicators for endotracheal tube suction were used as criteria when designing the ESAT©. Content validity was reported previously. The final stages of psychometric testing are presented. DESIGN: Observational testing was used to measure construct validity and determine whether the ESAT© could guide 'inexperienced' paediatric intensive care nurses' decision-making regarding endotracheal tube suction. Test-retest reliability of the ESAT© was performed at two time points. METHODS: The researchers and paediatric intensive care nurse 'experts' developed 10 hypothetical clinical scenarios with predetermined endotracheal tube suction outcomes. 'Experienced' (n=12) and 'inexperienced' (n=14) paediatric intensive care nurses were presented with the scenarios and the ESAT© guiding decision-making about whether to perform endotracheal tube suction for each scenario. Outcomes were compared with those predetermined by the 'experts' (n=9). Test-retest reliability of the ESAT© was measured at two consecutive time points (4 weeks apart) with 'experienced' and 'inexperienced' PIC nurses using the same scenarios and tool to guide decision-making. RESULTS: No differences were observed between endotracheal tube suction decisions made by 'experts' (n=9), 'inexperienced' (n=14) and 'experienced' (n=12) nurses confirming the tool's construct validity. No differences were observed between groups for endotracheal tube suction decisions at T1 and T2. CONCLUSION: Criterion-related construct validity and test-retest reliability of the ESAT© were demonstrated. Further testing is recommended to confirm reliability in the clinical setting with the 'inexperienced' nurse to guide decision-making related to endotracheal tube suction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 29345013 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Lived Experiences of Mothers with Diabetic Children from the Transfer of Caring Role.

Related Articles Lived Experiences of Mothers with Diabetic Children from the Transfer of Caring Role. Int J Community Based Nurs Midwifery. 2018 Jan;6(1):76-88 Authors: Khandan M, Abazari F, Tirgari B, Cheraghi MA Abstract Background: Following the confirmed type 1 diabetes in children and their discharge from the hospital, the care responsibilities are transferred from nurses to mothers. These mothers are faced with many challenges to play this caring role. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of the diabetic children's mothers from the transfer of caring role. Methods: In 2016, semi-structured interviews with Eleven Iranian mothers of children (aged≤14 year) with type 1 diabetes were conducted. Data were analyzed using Colizzi's phenomenological method. Results: The following themes emerged in this study: 'Facing the care management challenges,' 'care in the shadow of concern', and 'hard life in the impasse of diabetes'. Conclusion: The mothers of children with type 1 diabetes, who undertake the caring role that has been transferred to them by healthcare providers, are faced with many challenges. They feel a lot of concerns and experience a hard life. Thus, understanding the experiences of these mothers by the health professionals, to improve the quality of care, is necessary. PMID: 29344538 [PubMed]

The Relationship between Health Literacy and Health Promoting Behaviors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

Related Articles The Relationship between Health Literacy and Health Promoting Behaviors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. Int J Community Based Nurs Midwifery. 2018 Jan;6(1):65-75 Authors: Chahardah-Cherik S, Gheibizadeh M, Jahani S, Cheraghian B Abstract Background: Health promoting behaviors are known to be a key factor in managing type 2 diabetes and improving the quality of life in diabetic patients. However, there is little known about the factors influencing these behaviors in diabetic patients. This study aimed to find the relationship between the health literacy and health promoting behaviors in patients with type II diabetes. Methods: This correlational study was conducted from August to September 2016 on 175 eligible diabetic patients (20 to 65 year-old) who referred to the selected centers of diabetes control in Ahvaz City. Patients were chosen using convenience non-probable sampling. Data were collected by diabetic patients' health promoting behaviors' questionnaire and health literacy questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS 22, descriptive statistics and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Result: The mean scores for health promoting behaviors and health literacy were determined 100.45±19.82 and 76.14±15.26, respectively. The highest and lowest scores in health promoting behaviors belonged to nutrition (26.11±6.85) and physical activity (6.70±2.75), respectively. There was a significant relationship between all dimensions of health promoting behaviors and health literacy (P<0.05). Conclusion: Since health literacy has a positive relationship with health promoting behaviors in diabetic patients, health care providers need to concentrate on increasing the health literacy of their patients rather than solely concentrating on increasing their knowledge, thereby facilitating the development of health promoting behaviors in patients. PMID: 29344537 [PubMed]

The Effect of Self-Care Education on Emotional Intelligence and HbA1c level in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

Related Articles The Effect of Self-Care Education on Emotional Intelligence and HbA1c level in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial. Int J Community Based Nurs Midwifery. 2018 Jan;6(1):39-46 Authors: Tavakol Moghadam S, Najafi SS, Yektatalab S Abstract Background: The role of Emotional Intelligence (EI) in glycemic control in type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) has not been fully understood. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of self-care education on EI and hemoglobin glycosylated (HbA1c) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 48 patients with type 2 DM referred to Shahid Motahari Diabetes Center in 2015 were divided into an intervention and a control group using block randomization. The study data were collected using Bar-On questionnaire and blood testing immediately and two months after the intervention. The educational content was presented to the intervention group through 1-1:30-hour sessions held once a week for 8 continuous weeks. The control group, however, only received the clinic's routine cares. Results: The results showed a significant difference in the mean level of HbA1c in the intervention group before and two months after the intervention (P=0.003). However, this difference was not significant in the control group. Moreover, the mean of EI was higher in the intervention group compared to the control group (P=0.08). Conclusion: Self-care education improved the HbA1c level and EI among the patients with type 2 DM. Therefore, it is recommended that health care providers, specially nurses, should train the diabetic patients for self-care, which can lead to better glycemic control. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201408188505N7. PMID: 29344534 [PubMed]

The Effect of Family-Centered Empowerment Program on Self-Efficacy of Adolescents with Thalassemia Major: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

Related Articles The Effect of Family-Centered Empowerment Program on Self-Efficacy of Adolescents with Thalassemia Major: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial. Int J Community Based Nurs Midwifery. 2018 Jan;6(1):29-38 Authors: Borimnejad L, Parvizy S, Haghaani H, Sheibani B Abstract Background: Chronic nature of thalassemia causes changes in different aspects of life in patients, including their self-efficacy. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of family-centered empowerment program on the self-efficacy of adolescents with Thalassemia major. Methods: A quasi-experimental study was performed on adolescents with thalassemia major in 2013 in Bandar Abbas, Iran. The participants were divided into intervention and control groups, respectively. Research instruments included demographic data questionnaire, need assessment self-made questionnaire, general self-efficacy scale, and sickle cell self-efficacy scale. After collecting the data from the pre-intervention step, family-centered empowerment program was implemented for the intervention group and secondary test was conducted six weeks after the intervention and the results were analyzed by statistical SPSS-21 software, using independent t-test, paired t-test, Chi-square and Fisher's exact test, and descriptive statistics. A significance level of P<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The mean and standard deviation of the adolescents' age were 16±1.9 in the intervention group and 15.2±2 in the control group. Independent t-test showed a significant difference between the two groups after the intervention for both self-efficacies (P<0.01 and P=0.02). In the control group, the results of general self-efficacy scores after six weeks' time were reduced compared to the previous one while disease-related self-efficacy scores in the same group after six weeks' time increased and paired t-test indicated a significant difference in the mean scores for both self-efficacies in both groups. Conclusion: Implementation of family-centered empowerment program for patients with thalassemia major is practically feasible and it can increase self-efficacy in these patients. It is suggested that the program should be used in comprehensive care protocols of children and adolescents. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201407211788N8. PMID: 29344533 [PubMed]

Factors Affecting the Place of Delivery among Mothers Residing in Jhorahat VDC, Morang, Nepal.

Related Articles Factors Affecting the Place of Delivery among Mothers Residing in Jhorahat VDC, Morang, Nepal. Int J Community Based Nurs Midwifery. 2018 Jan;6(1):2-11 Authors: Dhakal P, Shrestha M, Baral D, Pathak S Abstract Background: In Nepal, the maternal mortality ratio is 281 per thousand live births, among which 40% mortality occurs during home delivery. Home delivery increases the risk of maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity due to the birth not assisted by skilled attendant. This study was carried out to determine the factors affecting the place of delivery among the mothers residing in Jhorahat VDC, Morang district, Nepal. Methods: A mixed method study using interviews based on semi-structured questionnaire (n=93) among mothers and two focus group discussion among decision makers of the house and female community health volunteers was conducted between November to December 2012. For quantitative data, Chi-square test and Fischer's Exact test were used to examine the association between the selected variables and place of delivery. Results: More than half (58.1%) of the mothers had institutional delivery and 41.9% of them had home delivery. The most common reason for home delivery was easy and convenient environment (66.7%) and that for institutional delivery was safety (77.8%). There was a significant association between caste, education of mothers, education of spouse, occupation of spouse, per capita income, time to reach the nearest health center, parity, previous place of delivery, number of antenatal visit, knowledge about place of delivery, planned place of delivery, and place of delivery. Conclusion: Maternal health services, such as prenatal care, skilled assistance during delivery and post-natal care, along with adequately equipped health institutions, play a major role in the reduction of maternal morbidity and mortality. Concerted efforts should be made both at community and government levels to increase institutional delivery. PMID: 29344531 [PubMed]

Psychometric properties of the communication skills attitude scale (CSAS) measure in a sample of Iranian medical students.

Related Articles Psychometric properties of the communication skills attitude scale (CSAS) measure in a sample of Iranian medical students. J Adv Med Educ Prof. 2018 Jan;6(1):14-21 Authors: Yakhforoshha A, Shirazi M, Yousefzadeh N, Ghanbarnejad A, Cheraghi M, Mojtahedzadeh R, Mahmoodi-Bakhtiari B, Emami SAH Abstract Introduction: Communication skill (CS) has been regarded as one of the fundamental competencies for medical and other health care professionals. Student's attitude toward learning CS is a key factor in designing educational interventions. The original CSAS, as positive and negative subscales, was developed in the UK; however, there is no scale to measure these attitudes in Iran. The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric characteristic of the Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS), in an Iranian context and to understand if it is a valid tool to assess attitude toward learning communication skills among health care professionals. Methods: Psychometric characteristics of the CSAS were assessed by using a cross-sectional design. In the current study, 410 medical students were selected using stratified sampling framework. The face validity of the scale was estimated through students and experts' opinion. Content validity of CSAS was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. Reliability was examined through two methods including Chronbach's alpha coefficient and Intraclass Correlation of Coefficient (ICC). Construct validity of CSAS was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and explanatory factor analysis (PCA) followed by varimax rotation. Convergent and discriminant validity of the scale was measured through Spearman correlation. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 19 and EQS, 6.1. Results: The internal consistency and reproducibility of the total CSAS score were 0.84 (Cronbach's alpha) and 0.81, which demonstrates an acceptable reliability of the questionnaire. The item-level content validity index (I-CVI) and the scale-level content validity index (S-CVI/Ave) demonstrated appropriate results: 0.97 and 0.94, respectively. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) on the 25 items of the CSAS revealed 4-factor structure that all together explained %55 of the variance. Results of the confirmatory factor analysis indicated an acceptable goodness-of-fit between the model and the observed data. [χ2/df = 2.36, Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.95, the GFI=0.96, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.05]. Conclusion: The Persian version of CSAS is a multidimensional, valid and reliable tool for assessing attitudes towards communication skill among medical students. PMID: 29344525 [PubMed]

Experiences of Fathers with Inpatient Premature Neonates: Phenomenological Interpretative Analysis.

Related Articles Experiences of Fathers with Inpatient Premature Neonates: Phenomenological Interpretative Analysis. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. 2018 Jan-Feb;23(1):71-78 Authors: Dadkhahtehrani T, Eskandari N, Khalajinia Z, Ahmari-Tehran H Abstract Background: Birth and hospitalization of premature neonates create enormous challenges for the family with serious impacts on parents' mental and emotional health. The present study was designed to explore the experiences of fathers with premature neonates hospitalized in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Materials and Methods: In this interpretative phenomenological study, data were collected using in-depth interviews guided with a semi-structured questionnaire and analyzed by interpretative phenomenological analysis. Totally seven interviews were conducted with six participants. Results: The mean age of the fathers was 32 (23-42) years, and all of the fathers lived with their wives. Experiences of the fathers were categorized into 13 subordinate and three superordinate themes: "abandonment and helplessness" (lack of financial support, lack of informational support, and indignation and distrust toward the hospital staffs); "anxiety and confusion" (family disruption, shock due to the premature birth of the neonate, uncertainty, the loss of wishes, feeling of guilt and blame, and occupational disruption); and "development and self-actualization" (emotional development, spiritual development, independence and self-efficacy, and responsibility). Conclusions: The present study showed that the fathers with premature neonates hospitalized in NICU encounter both positive (development and self-actualization) and negative experiences (lack of financial and informational supports, distrusting toward the hospital staffs, family disruption, and occupational disruption). Planning to manage adverse experiences can help fathers to cope with this situation. PMID: 29344051 [PubMed]

A Structural Equation Model of Self-care Activities in Diabetic Elderly Patients.

Related Articles A Structural Equation Model of Self-care Activities in Diabetic Elderly Patients. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. 2018 Jan-Feb;23(1):61-65 Authors: Alavi M, Molavi R, Eslami P Abstract Background: Self-care is a valuable strategy to improve health and reduce events of hospitalization and the duration of hospital stay in elderly diabetic patients. This study aimed to examine the model of self-care behaviors in elderly diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted among 209 diabetic elderly patients who were admitted in three hospitals affiliated with the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Convenience sampling method was used to recruit the participants. Depression, anxiety, stress, and perceived social support were considered as predicting exogenous variables and elderly patients' self-care activities were treated as endogenous variables. The data were collected by a four-part questionnaire consisting of demographic and health-related characteristics; 21-item depression anxiety stress scale, multidimensional scale of perceived social support, and Diabetes Self-care Activities scale. Structural equation modelling by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16 and Analysis of Moment Structures-7 (AMOS) software was applied for data analysis. Results: Mean (standard deviation) of depression, anxiety, stress, perceived social support, and self-care activities of participants were 14.29 (4.3), 13.62 (3.74), 16.83 (4.23), 57.33 (14.19), and 44.56 (13.77), respectively. The results showed that the overall model fitted the data (χ2/df = 3.8, goodness-of-fit index (GFI) = 0.52, incremental fit index (IFI) = 0.48, and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.14). Three out of four variables (i.e., perceived social support, anxiety, and depression) significantly predicted adherence to self-care behaviors among diabetic elderly patients (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The perceived social support, anxiety, and depression were identified as key constructs which need to be taken into account and well managed by health care professionals to enhance adherence to self-care activities in diabetic elderly patients. PMID: 29344049 [PubMed]

The Impact of Normal Saline on the Incidence of Exposure Keratopathy in Patients Hospitalized in Intensive Care Units.

Related Articles The Impact of Normal Saline on the Incidence of Exposure Keratopathy in Patients Hospitalized in Intensive Care Units. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. 2018 Jan-Feb;23(1):57-60 Authors: Davoodabady Z, Rezaei K, Rezaei R Abstract Background: Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) have impaired ocular protective mechanisms that lead to an increased risk of ocular surface diseases including exposure keratopathy (EK). This study was designed to evaluate the effect of normal saline (NS) on the incidence and severity of EK in critically ill patients. Materials and Methods: This single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted on 50 patients admitted to ICUs. The participants were selected through purposive sampling. One eye of each patient, randomly was allocated to intervention group (standard care with NS) and the other eye to control group (standard care). In each patient, one eye (control group) randomly received standard care and the other eye (intervention group) received NS every 6 h in addition to standard care. The presence and severity of keratopathy was assessed daily until day 7 of hospitalization using fluorescein and an ophthalmoscope with cobalt blue filter. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis in SPSS software. Results: Before the study ( first day) there were no statistically significant differences in the incidence and severity of EK between groups. Although, the incidence and severity of EK after the study (7th day) was higher in the intervention group compared to the control group, their differences were not statistically significant. Although, the incidence and severity of EK, from the 1st day until the 7th, increased within both groups, this increase was statistically significant only in the intervention (NS) group. Conclusions: The use of NS as eye care in patients hospitalized in ICUs can increase the incidence and severity of EK and is not recommended. PMID: 29344048 [PubMed]

A Comparative Study of Shift Work Effects and Injuries among Nurses Working in Rotating Night and Day Shifts in a Tertiary Care Hospital of North India.

Related Articles A Comparative Study of Shift Work Effects and Injuries among Nurses Working in Rotating Night and Day Shifts in a Tertiary Care Hospital of North India. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. 2018 Jan-Feb;23(1):51-56 Authors: Verma A, Kishore J, Gusain S Abstract Background: Shift work can have an impact on the physical and psychological well-being of the healthcare worker, affecting patients as well as their own safety at the workplace. This study was conducted to compare the health outcomes and injuries, along with associated risk factors between the nurses working in rotating night shift (RNS) as compared to day shift (DS) only. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study conducted from June to November 2016 in a tertiary care hospital of Delhi. It involved 275 nurses working in RNS and 275 nurses from DS of various departments, selected through simple random sampling. Standard Shift Work Index Questionnaire (SSI) was used as the study instrument, with selected variables (according to objectives of the study). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square, t-test, and multivariate regression. Results: Female nurses had more sleep disturbance, fatigue, and poor psychological health. Working on a contractual basis, RNS, and living outside the hospital campus were associated with higher odds of having needle stick injury (NSI). The nurses working in RNSs were found to have significantly lower mean scores in job satisfaction (p = 0.04), sleep (p < 0.001), and psychological well-being (p = 0.047) as compared to DS workers. Conclusions: Health outcomes among nurses working in RNSs call for the interventions, focused on various factors which can be modified to provide supportive and safer working environment. PMID: 29344047 [PubMed]

Relationship between Spiritual Intelligence with Happiness and Fear of Childbirth in Iranian Pregnant Women.

Related Articles Relationship between Spiritual Intelligence with Happiness and Fear of Childbirth in Iranian Pregnant Women. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. 2018 Jan-Feb;23(1):45-50 Authors: Abdollahpour S, Khosravi A Abstract Background: Spiritual intelligence is a person's ability to feel a connection to a higher power and a sacred entity. With regard to its relation with happiness, it can have an important effect on the mental health of pregnant women. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between spiritual intelligence and happiness and fear of childbirth in pregnant women. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 245 low-risk pregnant women from June till September 2015. Using random cluster sampling method, the subjects were selected among the women who referred to health care centers in Shahroud (Northeast of Iran). After obtaining informed consent, the researchers evaluated the spiritual intelligence, happiness, and fear of childbirth. Data were analyzed using STATA12 and Chi-square test, t-test, analysis of variance, and Strucrural Equation Model. Results: In this study, the spiritual intelligence mean (SD) score was 64.43(16.51). Comparison between mothers with and without fear of childbirth showed there was a significant difference between the spiritual intelligence score and happiness mean scores in these two groups. There is a negative correlation between spiritual intelligence and happiness with fear of childbirth (-0.73 and -0.69, respectively). Conclusions: Increased level of spiritual intelligence in pregnant women can lead to an increase in their happiness and reduce their fear of childbirth. The fear of childbirth can be prevented via trainings to pregnant women about the components of spiritual intelligence; moreover, training the techniques to achieve more happiness can help mothers to reduce their fear of childbirth and hence promote natural childbirth. PMID: 29344046 [PubMed]

Ethical Challenges of Embryo Donation in Embryo Donors and Recipients.

Related Articles Ethical Challenges of Embryo Donation in Embryo Donors and Recipients. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. 2018 Jan-Feb;23(1):36-39 Authors: Taebi M, Bahrami R, Bagheri-Lankarani N, Shahriari M Abstract Background: Embryo donation, as one of the novel assisted reproductive technologies (ART), has remained a controversial issue. This is due to this methods' need for individuals from outside the family circle. Their presence can cause many ethical issues and complicate the designing and planning of the embryo donation process. The present study was conducted with the aim to assess the ethical challenges of embryo donation from the view point of embryo donors and recipients. Material and Methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted on 192 couples (96 embryo donators and 96 embryo recipients) referring to Isfahan Fertility and Infertility Center and Royan Institute, Iran. The subjects were selected through convenience sampling. The data collection tool was the researcher-made Ethical Challenges Questionnaire. Data were analyzed in SPSS software. Results: Embryo donors and recipients expresses the most important ethical challenges of embryo donation in the principle of justice (70.20%) and respect for autonomy (42.57%), respectively. Conclusions: The four ethical principles are important in the view of embryo donors and recipients; however, they highlighted the importance of the principle of respect for autonomy considering the existing barriers in the services of infertility centers. Legislators and relevant authorities must take measures toward the development of guidelines for this treatment method in the framework of ethics principles and incorporate all four principles independently. PMID: 29344044 [PubMed]

Effect of Telephone Follow-up by Nurses on Self-care in Children with Diabetes.

Related Articles Effect of Telephone Follow-up by Nurses on Self-care in Children with Diabetes. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. 2018 Jan-Feb;23(1):26-30 Authors: Samimi Z, Talakoub S, Ghazavi Z Abstract Background: Diabetes is a serious chronic disease during childhood. Because of the chronic nature of the disease, self-care is necessary. Education alone is not effective in providing care. Misunderstanding by the patients regarding diabetes during the training programs render telephone follow-up after training essential. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study with two groups (experimental and control) was conducted in two phases in 2014. The study population consisted of 70 children of 10-18 years of age with type I diabetes (35 patients in the experimental group and 35 in the control group). The participants were randomly selected from the patients referring to the Sedigheh Tahereh Diabetic Research and Treatment Center in Isfahan, Iran. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire on self-care and a glycosylated hemoglobin recording form. The experimental group received 12 weeks of telephone follow-up training by the center, whereas the control group received no follow-up. Results: The results showed that, after intervention, the total mean score of self-care in all aspects of diabetes care for children was significantly higher in the experimental group (p < 0.001). In addition, a statistically significant difference was observed between the experimental and control groups in terms of mean glycosylated hemoglobin after the intervention (p = 0.030). Conclusions: It can be concluded that telephone follow-up by a nurse can improve total self-care and glycosylated hemoglobin in patients with type I diabetes. PMID: 29344042 [PubMed]

Health Journalism: Health Reporting Status and Challenges.

Related Articles Health Journalism: Health Reporting Status and Challenges. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. 2018 Jan-Feb;23(1):14-17 Authors: Keshvari M, Yamani N, Adibi P, Shahnazi H Abstract Background: Media play crucial role in disseminating health information. Due to the importance of accurate health news reports, and the national need to professionalism in health journalism, this study aimed to investigate the characteristics of health journalists, and health reporting status and the challenges involved. Materials and Methods: Using consensus sampling, this descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on all health news reporters in Isfahan (34 journalists) in 2015-2016. Data collection was done via a researcher-made questionnaire. Content validity of the questionnaire was determined by qualitative method and based on the opinions of six experts. The test-retest reliability coefficient was 98.0. Data analysis was done by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 16 and descriptive statistics and content analysis were used for analyzing the responses to two open questions. Results: Among 34 journalists, 56% were women and 44% men; the majority of journalists (65%) had no specialized training on health reporting, 35% of journalists were not able to understand the health issues, and the knowledge of medical terminology in 59% of them was moderate to low. The most important required skill for reporters was the ability to interpret medical research reports (88%), 97% were eager to participate in specialized health education. Conclusions: Our study showed that health journalists lacked knowledge and specialized training for dissemination of health news. This has brought about serious challenges. Thus, development and implementation of training courses in close collaboration with educational department of the Ministry of Health and news programs professionals at Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting is highly recommended. PMID: 29344040 [PubMed]

The Effect of Auriculotherapy on the Stress and the Outcomes of Assistant Reproductive Technologies in Infertile Women.

Related Articles The Effect of Auriculotherapy on the Stress and the Outcomes of Assistant Reproductive Technologies in Infertile Women. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. 2018 Jan-Feb;23(1):8-13 Authors: Saffari M, Khashavi Z, Valiani M Abstract Background: Infertility means failure to achieve pregnancy after one year of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. Infertile women may experience severe stress and depression. Numerous studies have indicated that auriculotherapy could reduce stress. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of auriculotherapy on the stress and the outcome assisted reproductive technology in infertile women. Materials and Methods: The present study was a clinical trial that was conducted on 56 infertile women aged 20-45, who were assigned into two groups of intervention and control, from November 2014 to November 2015. The control group only received the routine treatments, while the intervention group, in addition to their routine treatment, received auriculotherapy for 8-10 sessions during menstrual cycle. Both groups completed Newton's Fertility Problem Inventory in three stages. The datasets collected for the study were analyzed using independent t-test, repeated-measures analysis of variance, and Chi-square test. Results: The mean score of stress in the intervention group decreased significantly, compared to the control group prior to the embryo transfer and pregnancy test stages. Although insignificant, the rate of pregnancy in the intervention group was higher than the control group. There was a significant increase in the rate of clinical pregnancy in the intervention group, compared to the control. Conclusions: The results indicated that auriculotherapy might be effective in reducing stress and improving the outcome of assisted reproductive treatment. PMID: 29344039 [PubMed]

Perceived organizational support and moral distress among nurses.

Related Articles Perceived organizational support and moral distress among nurses. BMC Nurs. 2018;17:2 Authors: Robaee N, Atashzadeh-Shoorideh F, Ashktorab T, Baghestani A, Barkhordari-Sharifabad M Abstract Background: Moral distress is prevalent in the health care environment at different levels. Nurses in all roles and positions are exposed to ethically challenging conditions. Development of supportive climates in organizations may drive nurses towards coping moral distress and other related factors. This study aimed at determining the level of perceived organizational support and moral distress among nurses and investigating the relationship between the two variables. Methods: This was a correlational-descriptive study. A total of 120 nurses were selected using random quota sampling method. A demographic questionnaire, Survey of Perceived Organizational Support, and Moral Distress Scale were used to collect the data which were analyzed using descriptive and analytical tests in SPSS20. Results: The mean perceived organizational support was low (2.63 ± 0.79). The mean moral distress was 2.19 ± 0.58, which shows a high level of moral distress. Moreover, Statistical analysis showed no significant relationship between perceived organizational support and moral distress (r = 0.01, p = 0.86). Conclusion: Given the low level of perceived organizational support and high moral distress among nurses in this study, it is necessary to provide a supportive environment in hospitals and to consider strategies for diminishing moral distress. PMID: 29344004 [PubMed]

Factors affecting effective ventilation during newborn resuscitation: a qualitative study among midwives in rural Tanzania.

Related Articles Factors affecting effective ventilation during newborn resuscitation: a qualitative study among midwives in rural Tanzania. Glob Health Action. 2018;11(1):1423862 Authors: Moshiro R, Ersdal HL, Mdoe P, Kidanto HL, Mbekenga C Abstract BACKGROUND: Intrapartum-related hypoxia accounts for 30% of neonatal deaths in Tanzania. This has led to the introduction and scaling-up of the Helping Babies Breathe (HBB) programme, which is a simulation-based learning programme in newborn resuscitation skills. Studies have documented ineffective ventilation of non-breathing newborns and the inability to follow the HBB algorithm among providers. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at exploring barriers and facilitators to effective bag mask ventilation, an essential component of the HBB algorithm, during actual newborn resuscitation in rural Tanzania. METHODS: Eight midwives, each with more than one year's working experience in the labour ward, were interviewed individually at Haydom Lutheran Hospital, Tanzania. The audio recordings were transcribed and translated into English and analysed using qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: Midwives reported the ability to monitor labour properly, preparing resuscitation equipment before delivery, teamwork and frequent ventilation training as the most effective factors in improving actual ventilation practices and promoting the survival of newborns. They thought that their anxiety and fear due to stress of ventilating a non-breathing baby often led to poor resuscitation performance. Additionally, they experienced difficulties assessing the baby's condition and providing appropriate clinical responses to initial interventions at birth; hence, further necessary actions and timely initiation of ventilation were delayed. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts should be focused on improving labour monitoring, birth preparedness and accurate assessment immediately after birth, to decrease intrapartum-related hypoxia. Midwives should be well prepared to treat a non-breathing baby through high-quality and frequent simulation training with an emphasis on teamwork training. PMID: 29343190 [PubMed - in process]
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