Prolonged chewing at lunch decreases later snack intake.
Appetite. 2013 Mar ;62:91-5. Epub 2012 Nov 30. PMID: 23207188
Suzanne Higgs, Alison Jones
Prolonged chewing of food can reduce meal intake. However, whether prolonged chewing influences intake at a subsequent eating occasion is unknown. We hypothesised that chewing each mouthful for 30s would reduce afternoon snack intake more than (a) an habitual chewing control condition, and (b) an habitual chewing condition with a pauses in between each mouthful to equate the meal durations. We further hypothesised that this effect may be related to effects of prolonged chewing on lunch memory. Forty three participants ate a fixed lunch of sandwiches in the laboratory. They were randomly allocated to one of the three experimental groups according to a between-subjects design. Appetite, mood and lunch enjoyment ratings were taken before and after lunch and before snacking. Snack intake of candies at a taste test 2h after lunch was measured as well as rated vividness of lunch memory. Participants in the prolonged chewing group ate significantly fewer candies than participants in the habitual chewing group. Snack intake by the pauses group did not differ from either the prolonged or habitual chewing groups. Participants in the prolonged chewing group were less happy and enjoyed their lunch significantly less than participants in other conditions. Appetite ratings were not different across groups. Rated vividness of lunch memory was negatively correlated with intake but there was no correlation with rated lunch enjoyment. Prolonged chewing of a meal can reduce later snack intake and further investigation of this technique for appetite control is warranted.
Article Published Date : Feb 28, 2013
Improvement in chewing activity reduces energy intake in one meal and modulates plasma gut hormone concentrations in obese and lean young Chinese men.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jul 20. Epub 2011 Jul 20. PMID: 21775556
Jie Li, Na Zhang, Lizhen Hu, Ze Li, Rui Li, Cong Li, Shuran Wang
Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.
BACKGROUND: As the first step in ingesting food, the effects of mastication on energy intake and gut hormones in both obese and lean subjects have not been extensively evaluated. OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to compare the differences in chewing activities between obese and lean subjects and to examine the effects of chewing on energy intake and gut hormone concentrations in both obese and lean subjects. DESIGN: Sixteen lean and 14 obese young men participated in the current research. In study 1, we investigated whether the chewing factors of obese subjects were different from those of lean subjects. In study 2, we explored the effects of chewing on energy intake. A test meal consisting of 2200 kJ (68% of energy as carbohydrate, 21% of energy as fat, and 11% of energy as protein) was then consumed on 2 different sessions (15 chews and 40 chews per bite of a 10-g food) by each subject to assess the effects of chewing on plasma gut hormone concentrations. RESULTS: Compared with lean participants, obese participants had a higher ingestion rate and a lower number of chews per 1 g of food. However, obese participants had a bite size similar to that of lean subjects. Regardless of status, the subjects ingested 11.9% less after 40 chews than after 15 chews. Compared with 15 chews, 40 chews resulted in a lower energy intake and postprandial ghrelin concentration and higher postprandial glucagon-like peptide 1 and cholecystokinin concentrations in both lean and obese subjects. CONCLUSION: Interventions aimed at improving chewing activity could become a useful tool for combating obesity. This trial was registered at chictr.org as ChiCTR-OCC-10001181.
Article Published Date : Jul 20, 2011
Discovery of a novel and rich source of gluten-degrading microbial enzymes in the oral cavity.
PLoS One. 2010;5(10):e13264. Epub 2010 Oct 11. PMID: 20948997
Eva J Helmerhorst, Maram Zamakhchari, Detlef Schuppan, Frank G Oppenheim
BACKGROUND: Celiac disease is a T cell mediated-inflammatory enteropathy caused by the ingestion of gluten in genetically predisposed individuals carrying HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8. The immunogenic gliadin epitopes, containing multiple glutamine and proline residues, are largely resistant to degradation by gastric and intestinal proteases. Salivary microorganisms however exhibit glutamine endoprotease activity, discovered towards glutamine- and proline-rich salivary proteins. The aim was to explore if gliadins can serve as substrates for oral microbial enzymes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Proteolytic activity in suspended dental plaque was studied towards a) gliadin-derived paranitroanilide(pNA)-linked synthetic enzyme substrates b) a mixture of natural gliadins and c) synthetic highly immunogenic gliadin peptides (33-mer ofα2-gliadin and 26-mer of γ-gliadin). In addition, gliadin zymography was conducted to obtain the approximate molecular weights and pH activity profiles of the gliadin-degrading oral enzymes and liquid iso-electric focusing was performed to establish overall enzyme iso-electric points. Plaque bacteria efficiently hydrolyzed Z-YPQ-pNA, Z-QQP-pNA, Z-PPF-pNA and Z-PFP-pNA, with Z-YPQ-pNA being most rapidly cleaved. Gliadin immunogenic domains were extensively degraded in the presence of oral bacteria. Gliadin zymography revealed that prominent enzymes exhibit molecular weights>70 kD and are active over a broad pH range from 3 to 10. Liquid iso-electric focusing indicated that most gliadin-degrading enzymes are acidic in nature with iso-electric points between 2.5 and 4.0. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first reported evidence for gluten-degrading microorganisms associated with the upper gastro-intestinal tract. Such microorganisms may play a hitherto unappreciated role in the digestion of dietary gluten and thus protection from celiac disease in subjects at risk.
Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2010
Evaluation and validation of an automatic jaw movement recorder (RumiWatch) for ingestive and rumination behaviors of dairy cows during grazing and supplementation.
J Dairy Sci. 2018 Mar;101(3):2463-2475
Authors: Rombach M, Münger A, Niederhauser J, Südekum KH, Schori F
Observation of ingestive and rumination behaviors of dairy cows may assist in detecting diseases, controlling reproductive status, and estimating intake. However, direct observation of cows on pasture is time consuming and can be difficult to realize. Consequently, different systems have been developed to automatically record behavioral characteristics; among them is the RumiWatch System (RWS; Itin and Hoch GmbH, Liestal, Switzerland). Until now, the RWS has not been thoroughly validated under grazing conditions. The aim of the current study was to validate the RWS, against direct observation, in measuring ingestive and rumination behaviors of dairy cows during grazing and supplementation in the barn. A further objective was to examine whether it is possible to refine the algorithm used by the evaluation software RumiWatch Converter 0.7.3.2 to improve the accuracy of the RWS. The data were collected from an experiment carried out with 18 lactating Holstein cows in a crossover block design including 3 treatments and 3 measuring periods. All cows grazed night and day, 19 h/d, and were either unsupplemented or supplemented, with chopped whole-plant corn silage, or chopped whole-plant corn silage mixed with a protein concentrate. During the measuring periods, cows were equipped with the RumiWatch Halter, and their ingestive and rumination behaviors were recorded concurrently by the RumiWatch Halter and by direct observation (690 × 10 min). Comparison of concurrently measured data shows that the RWS detected jaw movements reliably, but classification errors occurred. A low relative prediction error of ≤0.10 for the number of rumination boluses, rumination chews, and total eating chews was found. A high relative prediction error of >0.10 was found for the number of prehension bites and time spent in prehension and eating. Both converter versions performed equally well in differentiating ingestive and rumination behaviors when cows were supplemented in the barn or when grazing and supplementation activities were combined. For grazing cows, with no supplementation, more reliable results for the total number of eating chews, rumination chews, prehension bites, and time spent in these activities were obtained, by using the RumiWatch Converter 0.7.3.11. In light of these findings, further research is warranted to improve the accuracy of the RWS and to allow a differentiation between mastication chews and prehension bites while eating.
PMID: 29290426 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]