Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Chewing Food Thoroughly

Prolonged chewing at lunch decreases later snack intake.

Abstract Title: Prolonged chewing at lunch decreases later snack intake. Abstract Source: Appetite. 2013 Mar ;62:91-5. Epub 2012 Nov 30. PMID: 23207188 Abstract Author(s): Suzanne Higgs, Alison Jones Article Affiliation: School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: Prolonged chewing of food can reduce meal intake. However, whether prolonged chewing influences intake at a subsequent eating occasion is unknown. We hypothesised that chewing each mouthful for 30s would reduce afternoon snack intake more than (a) an habitual chewing control condition, and (b) an habitual chewing condition with a pauses in between each mouthful to equate the meal durations. We further hypothesised that this effect may be related to effects of prolonged chewing on lunch memory. Forty three participants ate a fixed lunch of sandwiches in the laboratory. They were randomly allocated to one of the three experimental groups according to a between-subjects design. Appetite, mood and lunch enjoyment ratings were taken before and after lunch and before snacking. Snack intake of candies at a taste test 2h after lunch was measured as well as rated vividness of lunch memory. Participants in the prolonged chewing group ate significantly fewer candies than participants in the habitual chewing group. Snack intake by the pauses group did not differ from either the prolonged or habitual chewing groups. Participants in the prolonged chewing group were less happy and enjoyed their lunch significantly less than participants in other conditions. Appetite ratings were not different across groups. Rated vividness of lunch memory was negatively correlated with intake but there was no correlation with rated lunch enjoyment. Prolonged chewing of a meal can reduce later snack intake and further investigation of this technique for appetite control is warranted. Article Published Date : Feb 28, 2013

Improvement in chewing activity reduces energy intake in one meal and modulates plasma gut hormone concentrations in obese and lean young Chinese men.

Abstract Title: Improvement in chewing activity reduces energy intake in one meal and modulates plasma gut hormone concentrations in obese and lean young Chinese men. Abstract Source: Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jul 20. Epub 2011 Jul 20. PMID: 21775556 Abstract Author(s): Jie Li, Na Zhang, Lizhen Hu, Ze Li, Rui Li, Cong Li, Shuran Wang Article Affiliation: Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China. Abstract: BACKGROUND: As the first step in ingesting food, the effects of mastication on energy intake and gut hormones in both obese and lean subjects have not been extensively evaluated. OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to compare the differences in chewing activities between obese and lean subjects and to examine the effects of chewing on energy intake and gut hormone concentrations in both obese and lean subjects. DESIGN: Sixteen lean and 14 obese young men participated in the current research. In study 1, we investigated whether the chewing factors of obese subjects were different from those of lean subjects. In study 2, we explored the effects of chewing on energy intake. A test meal consisting of 2200 kJ (68% of energy as carbohydrate, 21% of energy as fat, and 11% of energy as protein) was then consumed on 2 different sessions (15 chews and 40 chews per bite of a 10-g food) by each subject to assess the effects of chewing on plasma gut hormone concentrations. RESULTS: Compared with lean participants, obese participants had a higher ingestion rate and a lower number of chews per 1 g of food. However, obese participants had a bite size similar to that of lean subjects. Regardless of status, the subjects ingested 11.9% less after 40 chews than after 15 chews. Compared with 15 chews, 40 chews resulted in a lower energy intake and postprandial ghrelin concentration and higher postprandial glucagon-like peptide 1 and cholecystokinin concentrations in both lean and obese subjects. CONCLUSION: Interventions aimed at improving chewing activity could become a useful tool for combating obesity. This trial was registered at chictr.org as ChiCTR-OCC-10001181. Article Published Date : Jul 20, 2011

Discovery of a novel and rich source of gluten-degrading microbial enzymes in the oral cavity.

Abstract Title: Discovery of a novel and rich source of gluten-degrading microbial enzymes in the oral cavity. Abstract Source: PLoS One. 2010;5(10):e13264. Epub 2010 Oct 11. PMID: 20948997 Abstract Author(s): Eva J Helmerhorst, Maram Zamakhchari, Detlef Schuppan, Frank G Oppenheim Article Affiliation: Department of Periodontology and Oral Biology, Boston University Henry M. Goldman School of Dental Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: BACKGROUND: Celiac disease is a T cell mediated-inflammatory enteropathy caused by the ingestion of gluten in genetically predisposed individuals carrying HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8. The immunogenic gliadin epitopes, containing multiple glutamine and proline residues, are largely resistant to degradation by gastric and intestinal proteases. Salivary microorganisms however exhibit glutamine endoprotease activity, discovered towards glutamine- and proline-rich salivary proteins. The aim was to explore if gliadins can serve as substrates for oral microbial enzymes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Proteolytic activity in suspended dental plaque was studied towards a) gliadin-derived paranitroanilide(pNA)-linked synthetic enzyme substrates b) a mixture of natural gliadins and c) synthetic highly immunogenic gliadin peptides (33-mer ofα2-gliadin and 26-mer of γ-gliadin). In addition, gliadin zymography was conducted to obtain the approximate molecular weights and pH activity profiles of the gliadin-degrading oral enzymes and liquid iso-electric focusing was performed to establish overall enzyme iso-electric points. Plaque bacteria efficiently hydrolyzed Z-YPQ-pNA, Z-QQP-pNA, Z-PPF-pNA and Z-PFP-pNA, with Z-YPQ-pNA being most rapidly cleaved. Gliadin immunogenic domains were extensively degraded in the presence of oral bacteria. Gliadin zymography revealed that prominent enzymes exhibit molecular weights>70 kD and are active over a broad pH range from 3 to 10. Liquid iso-electric focusing indicated that most gliadin-degrading enzymes are acidic in nature with iso-electric points between 2.5 and 4.0. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first reported evidence for gluten-degrading microorganisms associated with the upper gastro-intestinal tract. Such microorganisms may play a hitherto unappreciated role in the digestion of dietary gluten and thus protection from celiac disease in subjects at risk. Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2010
Therapeutic Actions Chewing Food Thoroughly

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