Therapeutic Actions Light Therapy

NCBI pubmed

CRISPR/Cas9 mediated GFP knock-in at the MAP1LC3B locus in 293FT cells is better for bona fide monitoring cellular autophagy.

Related Articles CRISPR/Cas9 mediated GFP knock-in at the MAP1LC3B locus in 293FT cells is better for bona fide monitoring cellular autophagy. Biotechnol J. 2018 Apr 19;:e1700674 Authors: Wu Z, Zhao J, Qiu M, Mi Z, Meng M, Guo Y, Wang H, Yuan Z Abstract Accurately identifying and quantifying cellular autophagy is very important as the significance of autophagy in physiological and pathological processes becomes increasingly evident. Ectopically expressed fluorescent-tagged microtubule-associated protein light chain 3B (MAP1LC3B, LC3) is the most widely used reporter for monitoring autophagy activity thus far. However, this approach ignored the influence of constitutively overexpressed LC3 on autophagy itself and autophagy-related processes and its accuracy in indicating autophagy is questionable. Here, we generated a knock-in GFP-LC3 reporter via the CRISPR/Cas9 system in 293FT cells to add GFP to the N-terminal of and in frame with endogenous LC3. We proved that this knock-in GFP-LC3 was expressed at biological level driven by the endogenous transcriptional regulatory elements as the wild type alleles. Compared with the ectopically expressed GFP-LC3, the endogenous knocked-in reporter exhibited much higher sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio of GFP-LC3 puncta upon the induction or inhibition of autophagy at certain step for monitoring autophagy activity. Thus, according to the previous reported concerning and the results presented here, we suggest that this knocked-in GFP-LC3 reporter is better for bona fide monitoring cellular autophagy and should be employed for further study of autophagy in vitro and in vivo. PMID: 29673078 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

UV-light crosslinking regresses mature corneal blood and lymphatic vessels and promotes subsequent high-risk corneal transplant survival.

Related Articles UV-light crosslinking regresses mature corneal blood and lymphatic vessels and promotes subsequent high-risk corneal transplant survival. Am J Transplant. 2018 Apr 19;: Authors: Hou Y, Le VNH, Tóth G, Siebelmann S, Horstmann J, Gabriel T, Bock F, Cursiefen C Abstract Immunological graft rejection is the main complication after corneal transplantation into pathologically prevascularized so-called high risk eyes. Aim of this study was to evaluate whether UV-light crosslinking can regress pathological corneal blood and lymphatic vessels, and thereby improve subsequent graft survival. Using the murine model of suture-induced corneal neovascularization, we found that corneal crosslinking with ultraviolet (UV) A-light and riboflavin regressed both preexisting blood and lymphatic vessels significantly via inducing apoptosis in vascular endothelial cells. In addition, macrophages and CD45+ cell counts were significantly reduced. Consistently, corneal crosslinking reduced keratocyte density and corneal thickness without affecting corneal nonvascular endothelial cells, iris and lens depending on the crosslinking duration. Furthermore, using the murine model of corneal transplantation, long-term graft survival was significantly promoted (p<0.05) and CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ T regulatory cells were up-regulated (p<0.01) in high-risk eyes preoperatively treated by crosslinking. Our results suggest UV-light crosslinking as a novel method to regress both pathological corneal blood and lymphatic vessels and to reduce CD45+ inflammatory cells. Furthermore, this study demonstrates for the first time that preoperative corneal crosslinking in prevascularized high-risk eyes can significantly improve subsequent graft survival. That may become a promising novel therapy in the clinic. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 29673063 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Antimicrobial sonodynamic and photodynamic therapies against Candida albicans.

Related Articles Antimicrobial sonodynamic and photodynamic therapies against Candida albicans. Biofouling. 2018 Apr 19;:1-11 Authors: Alves F, Pavarina AC, Mima EGO, McHale AP, Callan JF Abstract Candida albicans biofilms exhibit unique characteristics and are highly resistant to antifungal agents. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is an alternative treatment limited to treating superficial infections due to the poor light penetration. In this manuscript, the antifungal properties of sonodynamic therapy (SDT) were assessed. SDT uses ultrasound instead of light, enabling the treatment of deeper infections. Planktonic cells and biofilms of C. albicans were treated with aPDT or SDT, in addition to combined aPDT/SDT, with cell survival determined using colony forming units. The total biomass and structural integrity of the biofilms were also investigated. The results demonstrated that while individual aPDT or SDT eradicated suspensions, they had little impact on biofilms. However, combined aPDT/SDT significantly reduced the viability and total biomass of biofilms. Microscopic images revealed that biofilms treated with aPDT/SDT were thinner and comprised mainly of dead cells. These results highlight the potential of combined aPDT/SDT for the inactivation of C. albicans biofilms. PMID: 29671631 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Light Therapy Improves Behavioral Disturbances, Sleep, Depression in Older Patients with Cognitive Impairment.

Related Articles Light Therapy Improves Behavioral Disturbances, Sleep, Depression in Older Patients with Cognitive Impairment. Am Fam Physician. 2018 Feb 15;97(4):Online Authors: Barry HC PMID: 29671524 [PubMed - in process]

Investigation of Effective Parameters on Size of Paclitaxel Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles.

Related Articles Investigation of Effective Parameters on Size of Paclitaxel Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles. Adv Pharm Bull. 2018 Mar;8(1):77-84 Authors: Madani F, Esnaashari SS, Mujokoro B, Dorkoosh F, Khosravani M, Adabi M Abstract Purpose: The size of polymeric nanoparticles is considered as an effective factor in cancer therapy due to enterance into tumor tissue via the EPR effect. The purpose of this work was to investigate the effective parameters on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-paclitaxel (PLGA -PTX) nanoparticles size. Methods: We prepared PLGA-PTX nanoparticles via single emulsion and precipitation methods with variable paremeters including drug concentration, aqueous to organic phase volume ratio, polymer concentration, sonication time and PVA concentration. Results: PLGA-PTX nanoparticles were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results exhibited that the diameter of nanoparticles enhanced with increasing drug, polymer and PVA concentrations whereas organic to aqueous phase volume ratio and sonication time required to the optimization for a given size. Conclusion: The precipitation method provides smaller nanoparticles compared to emulsion one. Variable parameters including drug concentration, aqueous to organic phase volume ratio, polymer concentration, sonication time and PVA concentration affect diameter of nanoparticles. PMID: 29670842 [PubMed]

UVA Irradiation Enhances Brusatol-Mediated Inhibition of Melanoma Growth by Downregulation of the Nrf2-Mediated Antioxidant Response.

Related Articles UVA Irradiation Enhances Brusatol-Mediated Inhibition of Melanoma Growth by Downregulation of the Nrf2-Mediated Antioxidant Response. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2018;2018:9742154 Authors: Wang M, Shi G, Bian C, Nisar MF, Guo Y, Wu Y, Li W, Huang X, Jiang X, Bartsch JW, Ji P, Zhong JL Abstract Brusatol (BR) is a potent inhibitor of Nrf2, a transcription factor that is highly expressed in cancer tissues and confers chemoresistance. UVA-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) can damage both normal and cancer cells and may be of potential use in phototherapy. In order to provide an alternative method to treat the aggressive melanoma, we sought to investigate whether low-dose UVA with BR is more effective in eliminating melanoma cells than the respective single treatments. We found that BR combined with UVA led to inhibition of A375 melanoma cell proliferation by cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase and triggers cell apoptosis. Furthermore, inhibition of Nrf2 expression attenuated colony formation and tumor development from A375 cells in heterotopic mouse models. In addition, cotreatment of UVA and BR partially suppressed Nrf2 and its downstream target genes such as HO-1 along with the PI3K/AKT pathway. We propose that cotreatment increased ROS-induced cell cycle arrest and cellular apoptosis and inhibits melanoma growth by regulating the AKT-Nrf2 pathway in A375 cells which offers a possible therapeutic intervention strategy for the treatment of human melanoma. PMID: 29670684 [PubMed - in process]

Selective Fiber Degeneration in the Peripheral Nerve of a Patient With Severe Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.

Related Articles Selective Fiber Degeneration in the Peripheral Nerve of a Patient With Severe Complex Regional Pain Syndrome. Front Neurosci. 2018;12:207 Authors: Yvon A, Faroni A, Reid AJ, Lees VC Abstract Aims: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is characterized by chronic debilitating pain disproportional to the inciting event and accompanied by motor, sensory, and autonomic disturbances. The pathophysiology of CRPS remains elusive. An exceptional case of severe CRPS leading to forearm amputation provided the opportunity to examine nerve histopathological features of the peripheral nerves. Methods: A 35-year-old female developed CRPS secondary to low voltage electrical injury. The CRPS was refractory to medical therapy and led to functional loss of the forelimb, repeated cutaneous wound infections leading to hospitalization. Specifically, the patient had exhausted a targeted conservative pain management programme prior to forearm amputation. Radial, median, and ulnar nerve specimens were obtained from the amputated limb and analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results: All samples showed features of selective myelinated nerve fiber degeneration (47-58% of fibers) on electron microscopy. Degenerating myelinated fibers were significantly larger than healthy fibers (p < 0.05), and corresponded to the larger Aα fibers (motor/proprioception) whilst smaller Aδ (pain/temperature) fibers were spared. Groups of small unmyelinated C fibers (Remak bundles) also showed evidence of degeneration in all samples. Conclusions: We are the first to show large fiber degeneration in CRPS using TEM. Degeneration of Aα fibers may lead to an imbalance in nerve signaling, inappropriately triggering the smaller healthy Aδ fibers, which transmit pain and temperature. These findings suggest peripheral nerve degeneration may play a key role in CRPS. Improved knowledge of pathogenesis will help develop more targeted treatments. PMID: 29670505 [PubMed]

Fabrication of ultrasmall WS2 quantum dots-coated periodic mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles for intracellular drug delivery and synergistic chemo-photothermal therapy.

Related Articles Fabrication of ultrasmall WS2 quantum dots-coated periodic mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles for intracellular drug delivery and synergistic chemo-photothermal therapy. Onco Targets Ther. 2018;11:1949-1960 Authors: Liao W, Zhang L, Zhong Y, Shen Y, Li C, An N Abstract Introduction: The consolidation of different therapies into a single nanoplatform has shown great promise for synergistic tumor treatment. In this study, a multifunctional platform by WS2 quantum dots (WQDs)-coated doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded periodic mesoporous organosilicas (PMOs-DOX@WQDs) nanoparticles were fabricated for the first time, and which exhibits good potential for synergistic chemo-photothermal therapy. Materials and methods: The structure, light-mediated drug release behavior, photothermal effect, and synergistic therapeutic efficiency of PMOs-DOX@WQDs to HCT-116 colon cancer cells were investigated. The thioether-bridged PMOs exhibit a high DOX loading capacity of 66.7 μg mg-1. The gating of the PMOs not only improve the drug loading capacity but also introduce the dual-stimuli-responsive performance. Furthermore, the as-synthesized PMOs-DOX@WQDs nanoparticles can efficiently generate heat to the hyperthermia temperature with near infrared laser irradiation. Results: It was confirmed that PMOs-DOX@WQDs exhibit remarkable photothermal effect and light-triggered faster release of DOX. More importantly, it was reasonable to attribute the efficient anti-tumor efficiency of PMOs-DOX@WQDs. Conclusion: The in vitro experimental results confirm that the fabricated nanocarrier exhibits a significant synergistic effect, resulting in a higher efficacy to kill cancer cells. Therefore, the WQD-coated PMOs present promising applications in cancer therapy. PMID: 29670370 [PubMed]

Colloidal plasmonic gold nanoparticles and gold nanorings: shape-dependent generation of singlet oxygen and their performance in enhanced photodynamic cancer therapy.

Related Articles Colloidal plasmonic gold nanoparticles and gold nanorings: shape-dependent generation of singlet oxygen and their performance in enhanced photodynamic cancer therapy. Int J Nanomedicine. 2018;13:2065-2078 Authors: Yang Y, Hu Y, Du H, Ren L, Wang H Abstract Introduction: In recognition of the potentials of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) in enhanced photodynamic therapy (PDT) for cancer, it is desirable to further understand the shape-dependent surface plasmonic resonance (SPR) properties of various gold nanostructures and evaluate their performances in PDT. Materials and methods: Monodispersed colloidal spherical solid Au NPs were synthesized by UV-assisted reduction using chloroauric acid and sodium citrate, and hollow gold nanorings (Au NRs) with similar outer diameter were synthesized based on sacrificial galvanic replacement method. The enhanced electromagnetic (EM) field distribution and their corresponding efficiency in enhancing singlet oxygen (1O2) generation of both gold nanostructures were investigated based on theoretical simulation and experimental measurements. Their shape-dependent SPR response and resulted cell destruction during cellular PDT in combination with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) were further studied under different irradiation conditions. Results: With comparable cellular uptake, more elevated formation of 1O2 in 5-ALA-enabled PDT was detected with the presence of Au NRs than that with Au NPs under broadband light irradiation in both cell-free and intracellular conditions. As a result of the unique morphological attributes, exhibiting plasmonic effect of Au NRs was still achievable in the near infrared (NIR) region, which led to an enhanced therapeutic efficacy of PDT under NIR light irradiation. Conclusion: Shape-dependent SPR response of colloidal Au NPs and Au NRs and their respective effects in promoting PDT efficiency were demonstrated in present study. Our innovative colloidal Au NRs with interior region accessible to surrounding photosensitizers would serve as efficient enhancers of PDT potentially for deep tumor treatment. PMID: 29670350 [PubMed - in process]

A cancer vaccine-mediated postoperative immunotherapy for recurrent and metastatic tumors.

Related Articles A cancer vaccine-mediated postoperative immunotherapy for recurrent and metastatic tumors. Nat Commun. 2018 Apr 18;9(1):1532 Authors: Wang T, Wang D, Yu H, Feng B, Zhou F, Zhang H, Zhou L, Jiao S, Li Y Abstract Vaccines to induce effective and sustained antitumor immunity have great potential for postoperative cancer therapy. However, a robust cancer vaccine simultaneously eliciting tumor-specific immunity and abolishing immune resistance continues to be a challenge. Here we present a personalized cancer vaccine (PVAX) for postsurgical immunotherapy. PVAX is developed by encapsulating JQ1 (a BRD4 inhibitor) and indocyanine green (ICG) co-loaded tumor cells with a hydrogel matrix. Activation of PVAX by 808 nm NIR laser irradiation significantly inhibits the tumor relapse by promoting the maturation of dendritic cells and eliciting tumor infiltration of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. A mechanical study reveals that NIR light-triggered antigen release and JQ1-mediated PD-L1 checkpoint blockade cumulatively contribute to the satisfied therapeutic effect. Furthermore, PVAX prepared from the autologous tumor cells induces patient-specific memory immune response to prevent tumor recurrence and metastasis. The PVAX model might provide novel insights for postoperative immunotherapy. PMID: 29670088 [PubMed - in process]

Concepts in Light Microscopy of Viruses.

Related Articles Concepts in Light Microscopy of Viruses. Viruses. 2018 Apr 18;10(4): Authors: Witte R, Andriasyan V, Georgi F, Yakimovich A, Greber UF Abstract Viruses threaten humans, livestock, and plants, and are difficult to combat. Imaging of viruses by light microscopy is key to uncover the nature of known and emerging viruses in the quest for finding new ways to treat viral disease and deepening the understanding of virus–host interactions. Here, we provide an overview of recent technology for imaging cells and viruses by light microscopy, in particular fluorescence microscopy in static and live-cell modes. The review lays out guidelines for how novel fluorescent chemical probes and proteins can be used in light microscopy to illuminate cells, and how they can be used to study virus infections. We discuss advantages and opportunities of confocal and multi-photon microscopy, selective plane illumination microscopy, and super-resolution microscopy. We emphasize the prevalent concepts in image processing and data analyses, and provide an outlook into label-free digital holographic microscopy for virus research. PMID: 29670029 [PubMed - in process]

Perinatal risk factors for asthma in children with allergic rhinitis and grass pollen sensitization.

Related Articles Perinatal risk factors for asthma in children with allergic rhinitis and grass pollen sensitization. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2018 May 01;39(3):1-7 Authors: Yavuz ST, Siebert S, Akin O, Arslan M, Civelek E, Bagci S Abstract BACKGROUND: Results of epidemiologic studies have determined several risk factors for asthma in school-age children. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether parental and perinatal risk factors, along with infantile feeding patterns, were associated with asthma in children with grass pollen allergy and allergic rhinitis. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of our cohort, which consisted of children with allergic rhinitis. Only children with grass pollen sensitization were enrolled. A detailed questionnaire regarding demographic features and perinatal events was given to the parents. RESULTS: A total of 293 children (200 boys [68.3%]; with median age, 10.2 years [interquartile range {IQR}, 7.4-13.0 years]) were included. A total of 109 children (37.2%) had accompanying asthma. The median age of onset of rhinitis symptoms was earlier (5.3 years [IQR, 4.0-8.0 years] versus 7.0 years [IQR, 5.0-10.0 years]; p = 0.001), histories of prematurity (16.7 versus 6.5%; p = 0.006), preeclampsia (5.5 versus 0%; p = 0.001), neonatal intensive care unit admission (15.1 versus 6.0%; p = 0.01), phototherapy (17.9 versus 7.1%; p = 0.004), early formula feeding (58.7 versus 41.2%; p = 0.006), and parental asthma (25.0 versus 11.4%; p = 0.002) were more frequent in children with asthma. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed prematurity (odds ratio [OR] 2.78 [95% confidence interval [CI],1.24-6.24]; p = 0.013), history of formula feeding (OR 1.81 [95% CI, 1.09-3.01]; p = 0.022), and parental asthma (OR 2.37 [95% CI, 1.22-4.63]; p = 0.011) were associated with asthma in school-age children with grass pollen-induced allergic rhinitis. CONCLUSION: Close monitoring of patients with these risk factors may help with an earlier diagnosis of asthma and prompt initiation of therapeutic interventions in children with allergic rhinitis and who were sensitized to grass pollen. PMID: 29669659 [PubMed - in process]

Effects of far infrared therapy on arteriovenous fistulas in hemodialysis patients: a meta-analysis.

Related Articles Effects of far infrared therapy on arteriovenous fistulas in hemodialysis patients: a meta-analysis. Ren Fail. 2017 Nov;39(1):613-622 Authors: Wan Q, Yang S, Li L, Chu F Abstract BACKGROUND: Far infrared (FIR) therapy may have a beneficial effect on maturity and function of arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Therefore, we performed this pooled analysis to assess the protective effects of FIR therapy in HD patients. METHODS: The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of FIR therapy for HD patients were searched from multiple databases. Relevant studies were screened according to the predefined inclusion criteria. The meta-analyses were performed using RevMan 5.2 software (The Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, UK). RESULTS: Meta-analysis showed that FIR therapy could significantly increase the vascular access blood flow level (MD, 81.69 ml/min; 95% CI, 46.17-117.21; p < .001), AVFs diameter level (MD, 0.36 mm; 95% CI, 0.22-0.51; p < .001), and the primary AVFs patency (pooled risk ratio = 1.24; 95% CI, 1.12-1.37, p < .001). In addition, therapy with FIR ray radiation could decrease AVFs occlusion rates (pooled risk ratio = 0.20; 95% CI, 0.08-0.46; p < .001) and the level of needling pain (pooled risk ratio = 0.08; 95% CI, 0.06-0.10, p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: FIR therapy can reduce AVFs occlusion rates and needling pain level, while significantly improve the level of vascular access blood flow, AVFs diameter and the primary AVFs patency. PMID: 28805538 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Evaluating the evidence for macrophage presence in skeletal muscle and its relation to insulin resistance in obese mice and humans: a systematic review protocol.

Related Articles Evaluating the evidence for macrophage presence in skeletal muscle and its relation to insulin resistance in obese mice and humans: a systematic review protocol. BMC Res Notes. 2017 Aug 08;10(1):374 Authors: Bhatt M, Rudrapatna S, Banfield L, Bierbrier R, Wang PW, Wang KW, Thabane L, Samaan MC Abstract OBJECTIVES: The current global rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes are staggering. In order to implement effective management strategies, it is imperative to understand the mechanisms of obesity-induced insulin resistance and diabetes. Macrophage infiltration and inflammation of the adipose tissue in obesity is a well-established paradigm, yet the role of macrophages in muscle inflammation, insulin resistance and diabetes is not adequately studied. In this systematic review, we will examine the evidence for the presence of macrophages in skeletal muscle of obese humans and mice, and will assess the association between muscle macrophages and insulin resistance. We will identify published studies that address muscle macrophage content and phenotype, and its association with insulin resistance. We will search MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science for eligible studies. Grey literature will be searched in ProQuest. Quality assessment will be conducted using the Systematic Review Centre for Laboratory Animal Experimentation risk of bias Tool for animal studies. RESULTS: The findings of this systematic review will shed light on immune-metabolic crosstalk in obesity, and allow the consideration of targeted therapies to modulate muscle macrophages in the treatment and prevention of diabetes. The review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at conferences. PMID: 28789665 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

First report of real-time monitoring of coagulation function potential and IgG subtype of anti-FVIII autoantibodies in a child with acquired hemophilia A associated with streptococcal infection and amoxicillin.

Related Articles First report of real-time monitoring of coagulation function potential and IgG subtype of anti-FVIII autoantibodies in a child with acquired hemophilia A associated with streptococcal infection and amoxicillin. Int J Hematol. 2018 Jan;107(1):112-116 Authors: Takeyama M, Nogami K, Kajimoto T, Ogiwara K, Matsumoto T, Shima M Abstract We describe an 8-year-old boy with acquired hemophilia A (AHA) associated with streptococcal infection and amoxicillin. Laboratory data revealed low factor VIII activity (FVIII:C, 1.5 IU/dl), and FVIII inhibitor (15.9 BU/ml). Comprehensive coagulation function assays, including rotation thromboelastometry (ROTEM®), revealed a markedly prolonged clotting time. Thrombin and plasmin generation (TG/PG) appeared to be moderately impaired. The inhibitor epitope of his anti-FVIII autoantibody recognized light and heavy chains. He was treated with Novoseven® and prednisolone, resulting in rapid improvement. ROTEM showed the return of coagulation time to normal level on day 20, and TG gradually improved. PG was moderately reduced in the clinical early phase, but improved at day 20. The patient's IgG subtype was IgG4 at onset. IgG1 was transiently positive on day 20, but negative on day 46. FVIII inhibitor gradually decreased and was completely absent after day 46, along with the elevated FVIII:C. IgG4 was again elevated on day 83, followed by a rapid decrease, indicative of the presence of non-neutralizing antibody, which remains currently undetected. We for the first time report changes in comprehensive coagulation function and IgG subtype of anti-FVIII antibody in a rare pediatric case of AHA. PMID: 28597369 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Clinical outcome associated with the use of different inhalation method with and without humidification in asthmatic mechanically ventilated patients.

Related Articles Clinical outcome associated with the use of different inhalation method with and without humidification in asthmatic mechanically ventilated patients. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2017 Aug;45:40-46 Authors: Moustafa IOF, ElHansy MHE, Al Hallag M, Fink JB, Dailey P, Rabea H, Abdelrahim MEA Abstract BACKGROUND: Inhaled-medication delivered during mechanical-ventilation is affected by type of aerosol-generator and humidity-condition. Despite many in-vitro studies related to aerosol-delivery to mechanically-ventilated patients, little has been reported on clinical effects of these variables. The aim of this study was to determine effect of humidification and type of aerosol-generator on clinical status of mechanically ventilated asthmatics. METHOD: 72 (36 females) asthmatic subjects receiving invasive mechanical ventilation were enrolled and assigned randomly to 6 treatment groups of 12 (6 females) subjects each received, as possible, all inhaled medication using their assigned aerosol generator and humidity condition during delivery. Aerosol-generators were placed immediately after humidifier within inspiratory limb of mechanical ventilation circuit. First group used vibrating-mesh-nebulizer (Aerogen Solo; VMN) with humidification; Second used VMN without humidification; Third used metered-dose-inhaler with AeroChamber Vent (MDI-AV) with humidification; Forth used MDI-AV without humidification; Fifth used Oxycare jet-nebulizer (JN) with humidification; Sixth used JN without humidification. Measured parameters included clinical-parameters reflected patient response (CP) and endpoint parameters e.g. length-of-stay in the intensive-care-unit (ICU-days) and mechanical-ventilation days (MV-days). RESULTS: There was no significant difference between studied subjects in the 6 groups in baseline of CP. VMN resulted in trend to shorter ICU-days (∼1.42days) compared to MDI-AV (p = 0.39) and relatively but not significantly shorter ICU-days (∼0.75days) compared JN. Aerosol-delivery with or without humidification did not have any significant effect on any of parameters studied with very light insignificant tendency of delivery at humid condition to decrease MV-days and ICU-days. No significant effect was found of changing humidity during aerosol-delivery to ventilated-patient. CONCLUSIONS: VMN to deliver aerosol in ventilated patient resulted in trend to decreased ICU-days compared to JN and MDI-AV. Aerosol-delivery with or without humidification did not have any significant effect on any of parameters studied. However, we recommend increasing the number of patients studied to corroborate this finding. PMID: 28435031 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

An elderly woman with bilateral raccoon eyes.

Related Articles An elderly woman with bilateral raccoon eyes. Emerg Med J. 2016 Nov;33(11):781 Authors: Inokuchi R, Tagami S, Maehara H PMID: 28319930 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Optogenetic and chemogenetic strategies for sustained inhibition of pain.

Related Articles Optogenetic and chemogenetic strategies for sustained inhibition of pain. Sci Rep. 2016 08 03;6:30570 Authors: Iyer SM, Vesuna S, Ramakrishnan C, Huynh K, Young S, Berndt A, Lee SY, Gorini CJ, Deisseroth K, Delp SL Abstract Spatially targeted, genetically-specific strategies for sustained inhibition of nociceptors may help transform pain science and clinical management. Previous optogenetic strategies to inhibit pain have required constant illumination, and chemogenetic approaches in the periphery have not been shown to inhibit pain. Here, we show that the step-function inhibitory channelrhodopsin, SwiChR, can be used to persistently inhibit pain for long periods of time through infrequent transdermally delivered light pulses, reducing required light exposure by >98% and resolving a long-standing limitation in optogenetic inhibition. We demonstrate that the viral expression of the hM4D receptor in small-diameter primary afferent nociceptor enables chemogenetic inhibition of mechanical and thermal nociception thresholds. Finally, we develop optoPAIN, an optogenetic platform to non-invasively assess changes in pain sensitivity, and use this technique to examine pharmacological and chemogenetic inhibition of pain. PMID: 27484850 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]