Therapeutic Actions Mind-Body Therapies

NCBI pubmed

Yoga to Enhance Self Efficacy: An Intervention for At-risk Youth.

Related Articles Yoga to Enhance Self Efficacy: An Intervention for At-risk Youth. Arch Psychiatr Nurs. 2018 02;32(1):82-85 Authors: Kwasky AN, Serowoky ML Abstract OBJECTIVE: Yoga has demonstrated effectiveness in improving self-management in a variety of disease states however little is known about the impact of yoga as a health promotion intervention for adolescent females in an urban school based environment. This pilot study was conducted to determine if yoga could improve the self-efficacy and body core tone in at-risk adolescent female participants. METHOD: A quasi-experimental design was employed, with data collection at baseline, end of program, and 1month post-program. Fifteen participants ages 11-14 were recruited. Yoga was practiced twice weekly for eight weeks. Self-efficacy was measured using a standardized tool, the Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Children (SEQ-C). Improvements in flexibility and core body tone were also examined. The researchers collected data on adverse childhood events using the Adverse Childhood Event (ACEs) scale. RESULTS: Fifteen participants were successfully recruited and 14 (87%) were retained through the duration of the project. Based on the small sample size, non-parametric tests were used (Freidman's test). Although there were no significant improvements in total SEQ-C, there were significant improvements in SEQ-C social subscale (p=0.028). Significant improvements were also identified in waist circumference (p=0.001) and in flexibility (p=0.034). CONCLUSIONS: Participant attendance/dose did not correlate to any of the outcomes, however with the physical and emotional improvements noted, it is assumed that any level of attendance was beneficial. Improvements in the social subscale of the SEQ-C could be the result of belonging to a group and strengthening healthy relationships. PMID: 29413079 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Direct modulation of aberrant brain network connectivity through real-time NeuroFeedback.

Related Articles Direct modulation of aberrant brain network connectivity through real-time NeuroFeedback. Elife. 2017 Sep 16;6: Authors: Ramot M, Kimmich S, Gonzalez-Castillo J, Roopchansingh V, Popal H, White E, Gotts SJ, Martin A Abstract The existence of abnormal connectivity patterns between resting state networks in neuropsychiatric disorders, including Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), has been well established. Traditional treatment methods in ASD are limited, and do not address the aberrant network structure. Using real-time fMRI neurofeedback, we directly trained three brain nodes in participants with ASD, in which the aberrant connectivity has been shown to correlate with symptom severity. Desired network connectivity patterns were reinforced in real-time, without participants' awareness of the training taking place. This training regimen produced large, significant long-term changes in correlations at the network level, and whole brain analysis revealed that the greatest changes were focused on the areas being trained. These changes were not found in the control group. Moreover, changes in ASD resting state connectivity following the training were correlated to changes in behavior, suggesting that neurofeedback can be used to directly alter complex, clinically relevant network connectivity patterns. PMID: 28917059 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The effect of type of afferent feedback timed with motor imagery on the induction of cortical plasticity.

Related Articles The effect of type of afferent feedback timed with motor imagery on the induction of cortical plasticity. Brain Res. 2017 Nov 01;1674:91-100 Authors: Mrachacz-Kersting N, Voigt M, Stevenson AJT, Aliakbaryhosseinabadi S, Jiang N, Dremstrup K, Farina D Abstract A peripherally generated afferent volley that arrives at the peak negative (PN) phase during the movement related cortical potential (MRCP) induces significant plasticity at the cortical level in healthy individuals and chronic stroke patients. Transferring this type of associative brain-computer interface (BCI) intervention into the clinical setting requires that the proprioceptive input is comparable to the techniques implemented during the rehabilitation process. These consist mainly of functional electrical stimulation (FES) and passive movement induced by an actuated orthosis. In this study, we compared these two interventions (BCIFES and BCIpassive) where the afferent input was timed to arrive at the motor cortex during the PN of the MRCP. Twelve healthy participants attended two experimental sessions. They were asked to perform 30 dorsiflexion movements timed to a cue while continuous electroencephalographic (EEG) data were collected from FP1, Fz, FC1, FC2, C3, Cz, C4, CP1, CP2, and Pz, according to the standard international 10-20 system. MRCPs were extracted and the PN time calculated. Next, participants were asked to imagine the same movement 30 times while either FES (frequency: 20Hz, intensity: 8-35mAmp) or a passive ankle movement (amplitude and velocity matched to a normal gait cycle) was applied such that the first afferent inflow would coincide with the PN of the MRCP. The change in the output of the primary motor cortex (M1) was quantified by applying single transcranial magnetic stimuli to the area of M1 controlling the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle and measuring the motor evoked potential (MEP). Spinal changes were assessed pre and post by eliciting the TA stretch reflex. Both BCIFES and BCIpassive led to significant increases in the excitability of the cortical projections to TA (F(2,22)=4.44, p=0.024) without any concomitant changes at the spinal level. These effects were still present 30min after the cessation of both interventions. There was no significant main effect of intervention, F(1,11)=0.38, p=0.550, indicating that the changes in MEP occurred independently of the type of afferent inflow. An afferent volley generated from a passive movement or an electrical stimulus arrives at the somatosensory cortex at similar times. It is thus likely that the similar effects observed here are strictly due to the tight coupling in time between the afferent inflow and the PN of the MRCP. This provides further support to the associative nature of the proposed BCI system. PMID: 28859916 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Real-time changes in corticospinal excitability related to motor imagery of a force control task.

Related Articles Real-time changes in corticospinal excitability related to motor imagery of a force control task. Behav Brain Res. 2017 09 29;335:185-190 Authors: Tatemoto T, Tsuchiya J, Numata A, Osawa R, Yamaguchi T, Tanabe S, Kondo K, Otaka Y, Sugawara K Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate real-time excitability changes in corticospinal pathways related to motor imagery in a changing force control task, using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). METHODS: Ten healthy volunteers learnt to control the contractile force of isometric right wrist dorsiflexion in order to track an on-screen sine wave form. Participants performed the trained task 40 times with actual muscle contraction in order to construct the motor image. They were then instructed to execute the task without actual muscle contraction, but by imagining contraction of the right wrist in dorsiflexion. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs), induced by TMS in the right extensor carpi radialis muscle (ECR) and flexor carpi radialis muscle (FCR), were measured during motor imagery. MEPs were induced at five time points: prior to imagery, during the gradual generation of the imaged wrist dorsiflexion (Increasing phase), the peak value of the sine wave, during the gradual reduction (Decreasing phase), and after completion of the task. The MEP ratio, as the ratio of imaged MEPs to resting-state, was compared between pre- and post-training at each time point. RESULTS: In the ECR muscle, the MEP ratio significantly increased during the Increasing phase and at the peak force of dorsiflexion imagery after training. Moreover, the MEP ratio was significantly greater in the Increasing phase than in the Decreasing phase. In the FCR, there were no significant consistent changes. CONCLUSION: Corticospinal excitability during motor imagery in an isometric contraction task was modulated in relation to the phase of force control after image construction. PMID: 28827129 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Mental practice for chronic pain in people with spinal cord injury: a systematic review protocol.

Related Articles Mental practice for chronic pain in people with spinal cord injury: a systematic review protocol. JBI Database System Rev Implement Rep. 2017 Aug;15(8):2004-2012 Authors: Opsommer E, Korogod N Abstract REVIEW QUESTION/OBJECTIVE:: The primary objective of this systematic review is to identify the effects of mental practice (MP) interventions on chronic neuropathic and nociceptive pain and motor function recovery in individuals after spinal cord injury (SCI). Where possible, this review will also describe the optimal type and dosage (i.e. frequency, intensity and duration) of MP interventions for patients with SCI. PMID: 28800048 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The biopsychosocial model of illness: a model whose time has come.

Related Articles The biopsychosocial model of illness: a model whose time has come. Clin Rehabil. 2017 Aug;31(8):995-1004 Authors: Wade DT, Halligan PW Abstract The biopsychosocial model outlined in Engel's classic Science paper four decades ago emerged from dissatisfaction with the biomedical model of illness, which remains the dominant healthcare model. Engel's call to arms for a biopsychosocial model has been taken up in several healthcare fields, but it has not been accepted in the more economically dominant and politically powerful acute medical and surgical domains. It is widely used in research into complex healthcare interventions, it is the basis of the World Health Organisation's International Classification of Functioning (WHO ICF), it is used clinically, and it is used to structure clinical guidelines. Critically, it is now generally accepted that illness and health are the result of an interaction between biological, psychological, and social factors. Despite the evidence supporting its validity and utility, the biopsychosocial model has had little influence on the larger scale organization and funding of healthcare provision. With chronic diseases now accounting for most morbidity and many deaths in Western countries, healthcare systems designed around acute biomedical care models are struggling to improve patient-reported outcomes and reduce healthcare costs. Consequently, there is now a greater need to apply the biopsychological model to healthcare management. The increasing proportion of healthcare resource devoted to chronic disorders and the accompanying need to improve patient outcomes requires action; better understanding and employment of the biopsychosocial model by those charged with healthcare funding could help improve healthcare outcome while also controlling costs. PMID: 28730890 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Does Postural Awareness Contribute to Exercise-Induced Improvements in Neck Pain Intensity? A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating Tai Chi and Neck Exercises.

Related Articles Does Postural Awareness Contribute to Exercise-Induced Improvements in Neck Pain Intensity? A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating Tai Chi and Neck Exercises. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2017 Aug 15;42(16):1195-1200 Authors: Lauche R, Wayne PM, Fehr J, Stumpe C, Dobos G, Cramer H Abstract STUDY DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. OBJECTIVE: This secondary analysis aims to examine associations of improvement of chronic neck pain with patients' and intervention-related characteristics. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Previous research has found that Tai Chi and neck exercises significantly improved chronic nonspecific neck pain; however, the factors for treatment success remain unclear. METHODS: Subjects with chronic nonspecific neck pain were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of group Tai Chi or conventional neck exercises, and they attended 12 weekly sessions of 60 to 90 minutes. The interventions included exercises to improve body awareness, that is, interoceptive and postural awareness. A linear forward stepwise regression analysis was conducted to examine associations with improvements in neck pain intensity. Potential predictor variables included baseline pain, age, sex, the type of intervention, attendance rate and home practice duration, and changes in psychological well-being, perceived stress, and postural and interoceptive awareness during the study. RESULTS: Overall 75 patients were randomized into Tai Chi or conventional exercises, with the majority being women (78.7%). Participants reported an average pain intensity of 50.7 ± 20.4 mm visual analog scale at baseline, and the average reduction of pain intensity in both groups was 21.4 ± 21.3 mm visual analog scale. Regression analysis revealed that reductions in pain intensity from baseline to 12 weeks were predicted by higher pain intensity at baseline (r = 0.226, P < 0.001), a decrease in anxiety (r = 0.102, P = 0.001), and an increase in postural awareness (r = 0.078, P = 0.0033), explaining a total of 40.6% of variance. CONCLUSION: Neck pain improvement was significantly associated with changes in postural awareness in subject with chronic nonspecific neck pain independent of treatment characteristics. Training of postural awareness might be an important mechanism of action of different exercise-based interventions for chronic neck pain. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: N /A. PMID: 28146026 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]