Age of Initiation and Internet Gaming Disorder: The Role of Self-Esteem.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw. 2017 Jun;20(6):397-401
Authors: Beard CL, Haas AL, Wickham RE, Stavropoulos V
The link between early initiation and problematic use has been observed for substance use disorders; however, this link has not been as clearly established for Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Available studies indicate that individuals who initiate Internet use at younger ages exhibit an increased risk for general Internet addiction. Prior research also suggests unique cognitive processes in online gaming, such that an individual's overall sense of self-worth can become contingent upon self-esteem derived from the gaming environment. The current research examines the mediational role of self-esteem variables in the relationship between age of initiation and IGD symptomatology. Data were analyzed from 1,044 adult participants (mean age = 30.90; standard deviation: 9.28; 35.0% female) recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk who reported playing massively multiplayer online role-playing games. Age of gaming initiation is directly linked to IGD, as earlier age predicted overall IGD symptom severity (b = -0.10, 95% confidence interval [CI: -0.17, -0.03]), controlling for self-esteem factors. In addition, self-esteem factors emerged as mediators of the effect, where global self-esteem served as a protective factor (b = -0.05, 95% CI: [-0.07, -0.02]) and high gaming-contingent self-worth (GCSW; b = -0.10, 95% CI: [-0.15, -0.04]) was associated with more negative outcomes. Earlier age of gaming initiation is associated with IGD symptomatology. Although risks of screen time are often referred to in terms of physical consequences, the present study provides support regarding the inclusion of self-esteem factors in the link between early use and IGD.
PMID: 28622030 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
A psychological intervention to promote acceptance and adherence to non-invasive ventilation in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: study protocol of a randomised controlled trial.
Trials. 2017 Feb 06;18(1):59
Authors: Volpato E, Banfi P, Pagnini F
BACKGROUND: People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) sometimes experience anxiety, depression and comorbid cognitive deficits. Rather than being merely a consequence of symptom-related physical impairments these additional problems may be part of the clinical course of the condition. The relationship between the physical and psychological aspects of the condition is illustrated by the patterns of use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV); NIV is often rejected or used inappropriately, resulting in clinical deterioration and an increase in health care costs. The study aims to analyse the effects of psychological support on the acceptance of, and adherence to, NIV. The primary outcome will be a latent variable related to indices of use of NIV equipment and adherence to treatment regime; while survival rates and psychological variables will constitute the secondary outcomes.
METHODS: A two-arm randomised controlled trial will be conducted. We aim to recruit 150 COPD patients for whom NIV is indicated. The experimental group will receive a brief course of psychological support that will include counselling, relaxation and mindfulness-based exercises. In some cases, it will also include neuropsychological rehabilitation exercises. Support will be delivered via four to eight meetings at the HD Respiratory Rehabilitation Unit, at home or via telemedicine. Controls will receive standard care and watch educational videos related to the management of their disease.
DISCUSSION: This investigation will gain insight about the role of a psychological intervention as part of a treatment plan during the process of adaptation to NIV in COPD patients.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02499653 . Registered on 14 July 2015.
PMID: 28166828 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Efficacy of mindfulness meditation for smoking cessation: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Addict Behav. 2017 Jun;69:27-34
Authors: Maglione MA, Maher AR, Ewing B, Colaiaco B, Newberry S, Kandrack R, Shanman RM, Sorbero ME, Hempel S
BACKGROUND: Smokers increasingly seek alternative interventions to assist in cessation or reduction efforts. Mindfulness meditation, which facilitates detached observation and paying attention to the present moment with openness, curiosity, and acceptance, has recently been studied as a smoking cessation intervention.
AIMS: This review synthesizes randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of mindfulness meditation (MM) interventions for smoking cessation.
METHODS: Five electronic databases were searched from inception to October 2016 to identify English-language RCTs evaluating the efficacy and safety of MM interventions for smoking cessation, reduction, or a decrease in nicotine cravings. Two independent reviewers screened literature using predetermined eligibility criteria, abstracted study-level information, and assessed the quality of included studies. Meta-analyses used the Hartung-Knapp-Sidik-Jonkman method for random-effects models. The quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach.
FINDINGS: Ten RCTs of MM interventions for tobacco use met inclusion criteria. Intervention duration, intensity, and comparison conditions varied considerably. Studies used diverse comparators such as the American Lung Association's Freedom from Smoking (FFS) program, quitline counseling, interactive learning, or treatment as usual (TAU). Only one RCT was rated as good quality and reported power calculations indicating sufficient statistical power. Publication bias was detected. Overall, mindfulness meditation did not have significant effects on abstinence or cigarettes per day, relative to comparator groups. The small number of studies and heterogeneity in interventions, comparators, and outcomes precluded detecting systematic differences between adjunctive and monotherapy interventions. No serious adverse events were reported.
CONCLUSIONS: MM did not differ significantly from comparator interventions in their effects on tobacco use. Low-quality evidence, variability in study design among the small number of existing studies, and publication bias suggest that additional, high-quality adequately powered RCTs should be conducted.
PMID: 28126511 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bio-Energy during Finals: Stress Reduction for a University Community.
J Community Health Nurs. 2016 Oct-Dec;33(4):209-217
Authors: Running A, Hildreth L
To re-examine the effectiveness of a bio-energy intervention on self-reported stress for a convenience sample of university students during dead week, a quasi-experimental, single-group pretest-posttest design was used. Thirty-three students participated, serving as their own controls. After participants had consented, a 15-min Healing Touch intervention followed enrollment. Self-reported stress was significantly reduced after the bio-energy (Healing Touch) intervention. Bio-energy therapy has shown to be beneficial in reducing stress for students during dead week, the week before final examinations. Further research is needed.
PMID: 27749089 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Use of Simulated Psychosocial Role-Playing to Enhance Nursing Students' Development of Soft Skills.
Creat Nurs. 2016 Aug 01;22(3):171-175
Authors: Liebrecht C, Montenery S
Effective communication and interaction enable nurses to develop caring, empathetic, and respectful relationships with patients and families. However, most nurses feel a lack of preparation in the "soft" skills of communication, professionalism, and leadership. Nurse managers are seeking graduates with strong emotional quotient characteristics such as self-awareness, motivation, self-regulation, empathy, and social skills. Assisting nursing students to develop these intangible, high-level skills presents an ongoing challenge to nurse educators. This creative teaching learning strategy examines the use of psychosocial role-playing skits to enhance nursing student development of the soft skills of nursing. In this strategy, senior level nursing students work in small groups to develop and present realistic 3- to 5-minute skits based on common nurse-patient, nurse-family, or nurse-health care team interactions that incorporate the concepts of therapeutic communication, interpersonal interaction, empathy, active listening, teamwork, delegation, and/or professionalism, followed by a debriefing session. Student feedback suggests that confidence and competence related to the skills of therapeutic communication, interpersonal interaction, empathy, active listening, teamwork, delegation, and professionalism may improve by incorporating soft skill psychosocial role-playing into a nursing education course of study.
PMID: 29195526 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]