Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Mind-Body Therapies

The Effects of Meditation on Grey Matter Atrophy and Neurodegeneration: A Systematic Review.

Abstract Title: The Effects of Meditation on Grey Matter Atrophy and Neurodegeneration: A Systematic Review. Abstract Source: J Alzheimers Dis. 2017 ;56(1):275-286. PMID: 27983555 Abstract Author(s): Nicole Last, Emily Tufts, Leslie E Auger Article Affiliation: Nicole Last Abstract: The present systematic review is based on the premise that a variety of neurodegenerative diseases are accompanied by grey matter atrophy in the brain and meditation may impact this. Given that age is a major risk factor for many of these progressive and neurodegenerative diseases and that the percentage of the population over the age of 65 is quickly increasing, there is an obvious need for prompt treatment and prevention advances in research. As there is currently no cure for Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases, many are seeking non-pharmacological treatment options in attempts to offset the disease-related cognitive and functional declines. On the basis of a growing body of research suggesting that meditation is effective in increasing grey matter volume in healthy participants, this paper systematically reviewed the literature regarding the effects of meditation on restoring grey matter volume in healthy individuals and those affected by neurodegeneration. This review searched PubMed, CINAHL, and APA PsycNET to identify original studies that included MRI imaging to measure grey matter volume in meditators and post-mindfulness-based intervention participants compared to controls. Thirteen studies were considered eligible for review and involved a wide variety of meditation techniques and included participants with and without cognitive impairment. All studies reported significant increases in grey matter volume in the meditators/intervention group, albeit in assorted regions of the brain. Limited research exists on the mechanisms through which meditation affects disease-related neurodegeneration, but preliminary evidence suggests that it may offset grey matter atrophy. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2016

Yoga, Meditation and Mind-Body Health: Increased BDNF, Cortisol Awakening Response, and Altered Inflammatory Marker Expression after a 3-Month Yoga and Meditation Retreat. 📎

Abstract Title: Yoga, Meditation and Mind-Body Health: Increased BDNF, Cortisol Awakening Response, and Altered Inflammatory Marker Expression after a 3-Month Yoga and Meditation Retreat. Abstract Source: Front Hum Neurosci. 2017 ;11:315. Epub 2017 Jun 26. PMID: 28694775 Abstract Author(s): B Rael Cahn, Matthew S Goodman, Christine T Peterson, Raj Maturi, Paul J Mills Article Affiliation: B Rael Cahn Abstract: Thirty-eight individuals (mean age: 34.8 years old) participating in a 3-month yoga and meditation retreat were assessed before and after the intervention for psychometric measures, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), circadian salivary cortisol levels, and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Participation in the retreat was found to be associated with decreases in self-reported anxiety and depression as well as increases in mindfulness. As hypothesized, increases in the plasma levels of BDNF and increases in the magnitude of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) were also observed. The normalized change in BDNF levels was inversely correlated with BSI-18 anxiety scores at both the pre-retreat (r = 0.40, p<0.05) and post-retreat (r = 0.52, p<0.005) such that those with greater anxiety scores tended to exhibit smaller pre- to post-retreat increases in plasma BDNF levels. In line with a hypothesized decrease in inflammatory processes resulting from the yoga and meditation practices, we found that the plasma level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine Interleukin-10 was increased and the pro-inflammatory cytokine Interleukin-12 was reduced after the retreat. Contrary to our initial hypotheses, plasma levels of other pro-inflammatory cytokines, including Interferon Gamma (IFN-γ), Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-α), Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), and Interleukin-8 (IL-8) were increased after the retreat. Given evidence from previous studies of the positive effects of meditative practices on mental fitness, autonomic homeostasis and inflammatory status, we hypothesize that these findings are related to the meditative practices throughout the retreat; however, some of the observed changes may also be related to other aspects of the retreat such as physical exercise-related components of the yoga practice and diet. We hypothesize that the patterns of change observed here reflect mind-body integration and well-being. The increased BDNF levels observed is a potential mediator between meditative practices and brain health, the increased CAR is likely a reflection of increased dynamic physiological arousal, and the relationship of the dual enhancement of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine changes to healthy immunologic functioning is discussed. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2016

Mind-body therapies and control of inflammatory biology: A descriptive review. 📎

Abstract Title: Mind-body therapies and control of inflammatory biology: A descriptive review. Abstract Source: Brain Behav Immun. 2015 Jun 23. Epub 2015 Jun 23. PMID: 26116436 Abstract Author(s): Julienne E Bower, Michael R Irwin Article Affiliation: Julienne E Bower Abstract: The use of mind-body therapies, including Tai Chi, Qigong, yoga, and meditation, has grown steadily in recent years. These approaches have been shown to be effective in reducing symptoms and improving quality of life, and research has begun to examine the impact of these therapies on biological processes, including inflammation. A review of 26 randomized controlled trials was conducted to describe the effects of mind-body therapies (MBTs) on circulating, cellular, and genomic markers of inflammation. This qualitative evaluation showed mixed effects of MBTs on circulating inflammatory markers, including CRP and IL-6, and on measures of stimulated cytokine production. More consistent findings were seen for genomic markers, with trials showing decreased expression of inflammation-related genes and reduced signaling through the proinflammatory transcription factor NF-κB. Potential mechanisms for these effects are discussed, including alterations in neuroendocrine, neural, and psychological and behavioral processes. Article Published Date : Jun 22, 2015

The effects of mind-body therapies on the immune system: meta-analysis. 📎

Abstract Title: The effects of mind-body therapies on the immune system: meta-analysis. Abstract Source: PLoS One. 2014 ;9(7):e100903. Epub 2014 Jul 2. PMID: 24988414 Abstract Author(s): Nani Morgan, Michael R Irwin, Mei Chung, Chenchen Wang Article Affiliation: Nani Morgan Abstract: IMPORTANCE: Psychological and health-restorative benefits of mind-body therapies have been investigated, but their impact on the immune system remain less defined. OBJECTIVE: To conduct the first comprehensive review of available controlled trial evidence to evaluate the effects of mind-body therapies on the immune system, focusing on markers of inflammation and anti-viral related immune responses. METHODS: Data sources included MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and PsycINFO through September 1, 2013. Randomized controlled trials published in English evaluating at least four weeks of Tai Chi, Qi Gong, meditation, or Yoga that reported immune outcome measures were selected. Studies were synthesized separately by inflammatory (n = 18), anti-viral related immunity (n = 7), and enumerative (n = 14) outcomes measures. We performed random-effects meta-analyses using standardized mean difference when appropriate. RESULTS: Thirty-four studies published in 39 articles (total 2, 219 participants) met inclusion criteria. For inflammatory measures, after 7 to 16 weeks of mind-body intervention, there was a moderate effect on reduction of C-reactive protein (effect size [ES], 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.04 to 1.12), a small but not statistically significant reduction of interleukin-6 (ES, 0.35; 95% CI, -0.04 to 0.75), and negligible effect on tumor necrosis factor-α (ES, 0.21; 95% CI, -0.15 to 0.58). For anti-viral related immune and enumerative measures, there were negligible effects on CD4 counts (ES, 0.15; 95% CI, -0.04 to 0.34) and natural killer cell counts (ES, 0.12, 95% CI -0.21 to 0.45). Some evidence indicated mind-body therapies increase immune responses to vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Mind-body therapies reduce markers of inflammation and influence virus-specific immune responses to vaccination despite minimal evidence suggesting effects on resting anti-viral or enumerative measures. These immunomodulatory effects, albeit incomplete, warrant further methodologically rigorous studies to determine the clinical implications of these findings for inflammatory and infectious disease outcomes. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2013

Mind-Body Medicine Therapies for a Range of Depression Severity: A Systematic Review.

Abstract Title: Mind-Body Medicine Therapies for a Range of Depression Severity: A Systematic Review. Abstract Source: Psychosomatics. 2012 Aug 14. Epub 2012 Aug 14. PMID: 22902090 Abstract Author(s): Sahana D'Silva, Cristina Poscablo, Racheline Habousha, Mikhail Kogan, Benjamin Kligler Article Affiliation: Dept. of Psychiatry, George Washington University Hospital, Washington, DC. Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Of the 34 million adult Americans (17%) using mind-body medicine therapies, 8 million (24%) have anxiety/depression. The evidence for using mind-body therapies to address varying depressive symptoms in populations with and without other chronic comorbidities is reviewed. METHODS: Systematic literature searches of PubMed (Medline), Embase, CINAHL, and the seven databases encompassed by Current Contents, Web of Science, and Web of Knowledge were conducted. Studies designed as prospective control-comparison, adult population, English, at least 2 weeks long, sample size>30, and with primary or secondary outcome as depression measured on an established scale were included. Methodologic quality was evaluated using the modified Scale for Assessing Scientific Quality of Investigations (SASQI) for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). RESULTS: Ninety papers of about 2900 met both inclusion and exclusion criteria; 60% of them scored a SASQI>9 and were deemed of sufficient quality to be included in the review; 74% of these selected quality papers demonstrated positive effects on the improvement of depressive symptoms. All mind-body modalities included in the study had at least one positive study. For cancer patients, several studies noted the positive effects of yoga and combination therapies on depression severity. For both diagnosed depression and fibromyalgia, several studies noted the positive effects of mindfulness on depression severity. CONCLUSION: The use of evidence-based mind-body therapies can alleviate depression severity. They could be used with established psychiatric treatments of therapy and medications. The likely long-term increased cost-effectiveness of integrating these therapies deserves further investigation. Article Published Date : Aug 13, 2012

Mind-body interrelationship in DNA methylation.

Abstract Title: Mind-body interrelationship in DNA methylation. Abstract Source: Chem Immunol Allergy. 2012 ;98:85-99. Epub 2012 Jun 26. PMID: 22767059 Abstract Author(s): Moshe Szyf Article Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Sackler Program in Epigenetics and Psychobiology, McGill University, Montreal, Que., Canada. Abstract: DNA methylation is an enzymatic modification of the DNA molecule that confers unique differential identities upon similar DNA sequences. DNA methylation plays a critical role in cellular differentiation by conferring cell-type identity upon differentiated tissues in multicellular organisms by an innate developmentally programmed process. Recent data points to the possibility that DNA methylation plays a role in responding to external cues and conferring environment-context identity to DNA. DNA methylation is implicated in the response to early life social environment and might be playing an important role in setting up stable behavioral phenotypes in response to early-life social environment. The critical question is whether these responses are limited to the brain or involve the immune system as well. Addressing this question has important implications on understanding the mechanisms involved in DNA methylation mediated responses to the environment and how they impact the phenotype as well as on the possibility of studying the associations between DNA methylation and behavior and behavioral pathologies in living humans. A model is presented suggesting that DNA methylation acts as a mechanism of genome adaptation to the environment that is genomewide and systemwide. New data suggesting associations between DNA methylation patterns in white blood cells and the social environment will be discussed. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2011
Therapeutic Actions Mind-Body Therapies

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Expanding vocabularies for complementary and alternative medicine therapies.

Related Articles Expanding vocabularies for complementary and alternative medicine therapies. Int J Med Inform. 2019 Jan;121:64-74 Authors: Scarton LA, Wang L, Kilicoglu H, Jahries M, Del Fiol G Abstract OBJECTIVE: There is a significant consumer demand for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies as possible alternatives to drugs in the treatment and prevention of chronic diseases. Expanding controlled vocabularies to include CAM treatment relations could help meet those needs by facilitating information retrieval from the published literature. The purpose of this study is to design and evaluate two methods to semi-automatically extract CAM treatment-related semantic predications (subject-predicate-object triplets) from the biomedical literature using the Semantic Medline database (SemMedDB). METHODS: Predications were retrieved from SemMedDB, a database of semantic predications extracted from article abstracts available in Medline. Predications were retrieved for 20 biologically-based and 3 mind-body CAM therapies. The first method (allMedline) retrieved predications from any Medline citation, while the second method (soundStudies) only retrieved predications from scientifically sound clinical studies. Filtering criteria were applied to identify the predications focusing on the treatment and prevention of medical disorders using various CAM modalities. The disorders were extracted for each CAM therapy and ranked by occurrence. A reference vocabulary, composed of 20 biologically-based and 3 mind-body CAM therapies, was developed to evaluate the performance of each method according to precision and recall of the top 100 ranked concepts as well as average precision and recall. RESULTS: The difference between allMedline and soundStudies in terms of median precision for the top 100 concepts ranked by occurrence was significant (21.0% versus 27.0%, p < .001). The soundStudies method had significantly higher precision (7.0% vs 11.5%, p < .001) and the allMedline had significantly higher recall (37.1% vs 25.6%, p < .001). CONCLUSION: The soundStudies method may be useful for extracting treatment-related predications from the biomedical literature for the highest ranked concepts. Additional work is needed to improve the algorithm as well as identify and report shortcomings for future enhancements of the tools used to populate SemMedDB. PMID: 30545491 [PubMed - in process]

[Irritable bowel syndrome: comorbid psychiatric disorders and psychological treatment options].

Related Articles [Irritable bowel syndrome: comorbid psychiatric disorders and psychological treatment options]. Orv Hetil. 2018 Dec;159(50):2115-2121 Authors: Gajdos P, Rigó A Abstract Irritable bowel syndrome is a chronic functional gastrointestinal disorder with a prevalence of 7-21%. It has a negative impact on health-related quality of life and work productivity and it is associated with increased psychological distress and mental comorbidity, like major depression disorder and generalised anxiety disorder. Due to biopsychosocial factors and the brain-gut axis playing a key role in the aetiology of the disease, the use of psychological treatments has great importance in the therapy of irritable bowel syndrome. These interventions focus on central mechanisms, like visceral sensitivity, pain amplification, hypervigilance and gastrointestinal symptom-specific anxiety. They significantly reduce damaging illness-related cognitions, the use of maladaptive coping strategies, catastrophic appraisals of bodily sensations and chronic muscle tension. The utilization of these treatments is associated with clinically significant symptom improvement and positive mental health outcomes. This review study focuses on the psychiatric comorbidity of irritable bowel syndrome and the use of evidence-based psychological therapies in the treatment of the disease. Using ScienceDirect and PubMed databases, almost 60 studies have been selected. A high number of studies investigate the efficacy of cognitive behaviour therapy and hypnotherapy with meta-analyses included. There is also growing evidence on the beneficial impacts of mindfulness-based stress reduction. Future research will need to concentrate on studying the utility of mind-body therapies such as relaxation techniques in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with meta-analyses on the effects of mindfulness-based interventions. Orv Hetil. 2018; 159(50): 2115-21121. PMID: 30545263 [PubMed - in process]

Efficacy of biofeedback therapy on sleep bruxism: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Related Articles Efficacy of biofeedback therapy on sleep bruxism: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Oral Rehabil. 2018 Jun;45(6):485-495 Authors: Jokubauskas L, Baltrušaitytė A Abstract This study updates the review published by Wang et al in 2014 (Sleep Breath 2014;18(2):235-242). The review focuses on the most recent literature on management of sleep bruxism (SB) with biofeedback. An electronic search was conducted in five databases searching for articles published later than the date of Wang et al's search, viz., October 2012. Six articles of 2320 identified citations involving 86 adult participants were included in the qualitative synthesis. Of them, 4 were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and 2 were uncontrolled before-after studies. Different feedback modalities (electrical, auditory and vibratory stimulus) were investigated. The overall quality of the selected studies was assessed using the GRADE criteria. Due to heterogeneity between studies, the quantitative synthesis was performed out of three RCTs, of which two were retrieved from the previous review. The meta-analysis indicated a non-significant difference in electromyographic-measured SB episodes per hour after one night of contingent electrical stimulation (CES) compared with placebo control, yet a significant difference was shown after five nights of CES. The quality of evidence identified through GRADEpro was from low to moderate, due to imprecision and inconsistency between studies. Qualitative synthesis did not present a reliable reduction in clinical pain levels; however, no substantial sleep disturbances were indicated following the intervention. In conclusion, one of the biofeedback modalities, CES, is effective in reducing SB-related motor activities after a short-term treatment period. However, evidence of long-term effects is lacking. Further longitudinal studies with larger samples are necessary to acknowledge the clinical application of biofeedback. PMID: 29577362 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The mind-brain gap and the neuroscience-psychiatry gap.

Related Articles The mind-brain gap and the neuroscience-psychiatry gap. J Eval Clin Pract. 2018 08;24(4):797-802 Authors: Telles-Correia D Abstract A problem underlying the mind brain gap is the complex integration among the disciplines involved in it: neurosciences, clinical psychiatry and psychology, and philosophy of science. Research in neurosciences and clinical psychiatry requires a positioning in relation to some conceptual/philosophical aspects. These are related to the models of interrelationship of the brain and the mind, to explanatory approaches in psychiatry, and to conceptual issues such as dimensionality versus categories, symptoms versus disorders, and neurobiological correlates versus clinical determination of mental disorder. In this article, we try to address some of these issues that, if taken into account, could reduce the gap between psychiatrists and neuroscientists and turn the research in this area more profitable. PMID: 29498174 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Making the connection: the mental health needs of adolescents.

Related Articles Making the connection: the mental health needs of adolescents. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2017 08;29(4):391-392 Authors: Pitts S, Forman S PMID: 28525405 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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