Insulin secretion as a determinant of pancreatic cancer risk.
Med Hypotheses. 2001 Aug;57(2):146-50. PMID: 11461162
M F McCarty
New epidemiology confirms that glucose intolerance is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer, and that this association cannot be accounted for by an adverse impact of early pancreatic cancer on beta cell function. Previous reports indicate that risk for pancreatic cancer is increased in adult-onset diabetics. Since streptozotocin diabetes inhibits carcinogen-mediated induction of pancreatic cancer in hamsters, the most reasonable interpretation of these findings is that insulin (or some other beta cell product) acts as a promoter for pancreatic carcinogenesis. This view is consistent with a report that human pancreatic adenocarcinomas express insulin receptors that can stimulate mitosis; an additional possibility is that high insulin levels indirectly promote pancreatic carcinogenesis by boosting effective IGF-I activity via hepatic actions. In international ecologic epidemiology, pancreatic cancer rates correlate tightly with dietary intake of animal products; this may reflect the fact that vegan diets are associated with low diurnal insulin secretion. There is also suggestive evidence that macrobiotic vegan diets, which are low in glycemic index, may increase mean survival time in pancreatic cancer. However, other types of diets associated with decreased postprandial insulin response, such as high-protein diets or 'Mediterranean' diets high in oleic acid, may also have the potential for pancreatic cancer prevention. The huge increases of age-adjusted pancreatic cancer mortality in Japan and among African-Americans during the last century imply that pancreatic cancer is substantially preventable; a low-insulin-response diet coupled with exercise training, weight control, and smoking avoidance, commendable for a great many other reasons, may slash pancreatic cancer mortality dramatically. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.
Article Published Date : Aug 01, 2001
Special diets in modern America: Analysis of the 2012 National Health Interview Survey data.
Nutr Health. 2018 Mar;24(1):11-18
Authors: Leung B, Lauche R, Leach M, Zhang Y, Cramer H, Sibbritt D
BACKGROUND: Special diets are frequently used by the public but reasons for use and characteristics of users remain unclear.
AIM: To determine prevalence of the use of special diets, the individual characteristics associated with their use and reasons for use.
METHODS: The secondary analysis used data from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), a cross-sectional household interview survey of a nationally representative sample of non-hospitalized US adult populations ( n = 34,525). The dependent variables in this secondary analysis were the use of a special diet (vegetarian, macrobiotic, Atkins, Pritikin, and Ornish) ever and during the past 12 months. Independent variables included sociodemographic, clinical and behavioral variables. Prevalence of special diet use and reasons for use were analyzed descriptively. Associations between independent and dependent variables were analyzed using Chi-square tests and logistic regression. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated.
RESULTS: Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of using special diets were 7.5% (weighted n = 17.7 million) and 2.9% (weighted n = 6.9 million), respectively. Individuals using special diets in the past 12 months were more likely female (OR = 1.45; 95% CI = 1.21-1.74), not married (OR = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.63-0.91), college-educated (OR = 1.98; 95% CI = 1.25-3.11) and depressed (OR = 1.50; 95% CI = 1.14-1.98). They more likely also used herbal products (OR = 2.35; 95%CI = 1.84-2.99), non-vitamin (OR = 1.82; 95% CI = 1.45-2.27) and vitamin supplements (OR = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.24-1.99). Diets were mainly used to improve overall health (76.7%) or for general wellness/prevention (70.4%).
CONCLUSIONS: Special diets are mainly used for unspecific health reasons by those who are females, have a college degree or with depression, and commonly used in conjunction with herbs and dietary supplements.
PMID: 28959918 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]