Molecular properties of a fermented manure preparation used as field spray in biodynamic agriculture.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2012 Nov ;19(9):4214-25. Epub 2012 Jun 17. PMID: 22707205
R Spaccini, P Mazzei, A Squartini, M Giannattasio, A Piccolo
Manure products fermented underground in cow horns and commonly used as field spray (preparation 500) in the biodynamic farming system, were characterized for molecular composition by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance [(13) C cross-polarization magic-angle-spinning NMR ((13) C-CPMAS-NMR)] spectroscopy and offline tetramethylammonium hydroxide thermochemolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Both thermochemolysis and NMR spectroscopy revealed a complex molecular structure, with lignin aromatic derivatives, polysaccharides, and alkyl compounds as the predominant components. CPMAS-NMR spectra of biodynamic preparations showed a carbon distribution with an overall low hydrophobic character and significant contribution of lignocellulosic derivatives. The results of thermochemolysis confirmed the characteristic highlighted by NMR spectroscopy, revealing a molecular composition based on alkyl components of plant and microbial origin and the stable incorporation of lignin derivatives. The presence of biolabile components and of undecomposed lignin compounds in the preparation 500 should be accounted to its particularly slow maturation process, as compared to common composting procedures. Our results provide, for the first time, a scientific characterization of an essential product in biodynamic agriculture, and show that biodynamic products appear to be enriched of biolabile components and, therefore, potentially conducive to plant growth stimulation.
Article Published Date : Oct 31, 2012
Linoleic acid participates in the response to ischemic brain injury through oxidized metabolites that regulate neurotransmission.
Sci Rep. 2017 06 28;7(1):4342
Authors: Hennebelle M, Zhang Z, Metherel AH, Kitson AP, Otoki Y, Richardson CE, Yang J, Lee KSS, Hammock BD, Zhang L, Bazinet RP, Taha AY
Linoleic acid (LA; 18:2 n-6), the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid in the US diet, is a precursor to oxidized metabolites that have unknown roles in the brain. Here, we show that oxidized LA-derived metabolites accumulate in several rat brain regions during CO2-induced ischemia and that LA-derived 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, but not LA, increase somatic paired-pulse facilitation in rat hippocampus by 80%, suggesting bioactivity. This study provides new evidence that LA participates in the response to ischemia-induced brain injury through oxidized metabolites that regulate neurotransmission. Targeting this pathway may be therapeutically relevant for ischemia-related conditions such as stroke.
PMID: 28659576 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]