Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Exercise Swimming

Nigella sativa seed extract attenuates the fatigue induced by exhaustive swimming in rats. 📎

Abstract Title: Nigella sativa seed extract attenuates the fatigue induced by exhaustive swimming in rats. Abstract Source: Biomed Rep. 2017 Apr ;6(4):468-474. Epub 2017 Feb 24. PMID: 28413647 Abstract Author(s): Mahbubur Rahman, Dong Kwon Yang, Gi-Beum Kim, Sei-Jin Lee, Shang-Jin Kim Article Affiliation: Mahbubur Rahman Abstract: In previous studies, Nigella sativa (NS) has been studied due to its various physiological and pharmacological activities. However, evidence on the effects of NS on physical fatigue following exhaustive swimming remains limited. In the present study, the authors evaluated the potential beneficial effects of NS against the fatigue activity following exhaustive swimming. Rats were orally administered with NS extract (2 g/kg/day) for 21 days, and the anti-fatigue effect was assessed by exhaustive swimming exercise. The presented results indicated that pre-treatment of NS extract significantly increased the time to exhaustion. In hemodynamic parameters, NS extract increased blood pO2 and O2sat, but decreased pCO2. For underlying mechanisms, NS extract protected depletion of energy, indicated by increased levels of blood pH, glucose and tissue glycogen contents, and decreased levels of blood lactate, tissue lactic dehydrogenase and creatine kinase, when the NS extract was pre-treated. In addition, the NS extract inhibited oxidative stress following exhaustive swimming, as reflected by the results of increased levels of superoxide dismutase and redox ratio, and decreased the level of malondialdehyde when the NS extract was pre-treated. Collectively, the present study demonstrated that NS extract has an anti-fatigue activity against exhaustive swimming by energy restoration and oxidative-stress defense. Article Published Date : Mar 31, 2017

Effect of exercise on serum vitamin D and tissue vitamin D receptors in experimentally induced type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. 📎

Abstract Title: Effect of exercise on serum vitamin D and tissue vitamin D receptors in experimentally induced type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Abstract Source: J Adv Res. 2016 Sep ;7(5):671-9. Epub 2016 Jul 15. PMID: 27504197 Abstract Author(s): Yosria E Aly, Azza S Abdou, Mona M Rashad, Menatallah M Nassef Article Affiliation: Yosria E Aly Abstract: This work aimed to study the effect of swimming exercise on serum vitamin D level and tissue vitamin D receptors in experimentally induced type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Sixty adult male rats were divided into control and diabetic groups. Each was further subdivided into sedentary and exercised subgroups. Diabetes Mellitus was induced by a single intraperitoneal dose of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg) dissolved in cold 0.01 M citrate buffer (pH 4.5). The exercised subgroups underwent swimming for 60 min, 5 times a week for 4 weeks. Serum glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipids, vitamin D and tissue Vitamin D receptors (VDR) were evaluated. Significant increase in serum glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, cholesterol, triglycerides, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in sedentary diabetic rats was detected. On the other hand, high density lipoprotein (HDL), free fatty acids, serum vitamin D and pancreatic, adipose, and muscular VDR showed a significant decrease in the same group. It is evident that all these parameters were reversed by swimming exercise indicating its beneficial role in type 2 Diabetes. In diabetic groups; serum vitamin D was found to be correlated negatively with serum glucose, insulin, HOMA, cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL and positively correlated with HDL and tissue VDR. In conclusion, Disturbed vitamin D is associated with metabolic impairments in sedentary diabetic rats. Moderate swimming exercise is beneficial in improving these consequences through modulation of vitamin D status. Future studies could be designed to investigate the effect of the combination of vitamin D intake with exercise in diabetic patients. Article Published Date : Aug 31, 2016

In vivo and in vitro evaluation of the effects of Urtica dioica and swimming activity on diabetic factors and pancreatic beta cells. 📎

Abstract Title: In vivo and in vitro evaluation of the effects of Urtica dioica and swimming activity on diabetic factors and pancreatic beta cells. Abstract Source: BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016 ;16(1):101. Epub 2016 Mar 15. PMID: 26980377 Abstract Author(s): Abbas Ranjbari, Mohammad Ali Azarbayjani, Ashril Yusof, Abdul Halim Mokhtar, Samad Akbarzadeh, Mohamed Yousif Ibrahim, Bahman Tarverdizadeh, Parviz Farzadinia, Reza Hajiaghaee, Firouzeh Dehghan Article Affiliation: Abbas Ranjbari Abstract: BACKGROUND: Urtica dioica (UD) has been identified as a traditional herbal medicine. This study aimed to investigate the effect of UD extract and swimming activity on diabetic parameters through in vivo and in vitro experiments. METHODS: Adult WKY male rats were randomly distributed in nine groups: intact control, diabetic control, diabetic + 625 mg/kg, 1.25 g/kg UD, diabetic + 100 mg/kg Metformin, diabetic + swimming, diabetic + swimming 625 mg/kg, 1.25 g/kg UD, and diabetic +100 mg/kg Metformin + swimming. The hearts of the animals were punctured, and blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. The entire pancreas was exposed for histologic examination. The effect of UD on insulin secretion by RIN-5F cells in 6.25 or 12.5 mM glucose dose was examined. Glucose uptake by cultured L6 myotubes was determined. RESULTS: The serum glucose concentration decreased, the insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity significantly increased in treated groups. These changes were more pronounced in the group that received UD extract and swimming training. Regeneration and less beta cell damage of Langerhans islets were observed in the treated groups. UD treatment increased insulin secretion in the RIN-5F cells and glucose uptake in the L6 myotubes cells. CONCLUSIONS: Swimming exercises accompanied by consuming UD aqueous extracts effectively improved diabetic parameters, repaired pancreatic tissues in streptozotocin-induced diabetics in vivo, and increased glucose uptake or insulin in UD-treated cells in vitro. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2015

Evaluation of Trigonella foenum-graecum extract in combination with swimming exercise compared to glibenclamide consumption on type 2 Diabetic rodents. 📎

Abstract Title: Evaluation of Trigonella foenum-graecum extract in combination with swimming exercise compared to glibenclamide consumption on type 2 Diabetic rodents. Abstract Source: Food Nutr Res. 2015 ;59:29717. Epub 2015 Dec 22. PMID: 26699937 Abstract Author(s): Sajad Arshadi, Mohammad Ali Azarbayjani, Fatemeh Hajaghaalipor, Ashril Yusof, Maghsoud Peeri, Salar Bakhtiyari, Robert S Stannard, Noor Azuan Abu Osman, Firouzeh Dehghan Article Affiliation: Sajad Arshadi Abstract: BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of fenugreek seed extract in combination with swimming exercise compared to glibenclamide consumption on type 2 diabetic rats. DESIGN: The acute toxicity test was carried out to choose the safe doses and identify the toxicity effects of the fenugreek seed extract. To investigate the hypoglycemic effect of the extract and its effect in combination with swimming training, 80 Wistar Kyoto male streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were divided randomly into eight groups: diabetic control (C); fenugreek seed extract 0.8 g/kg (F1); fenugreek extract 1.6 g/kg (F2); swimming training (S); swimming training plus fenugreek extract 0.8 g/kg (SF1); swimming training plus fenugreek extract 1.6 g/kg (SF2); glibenclamide (G) and swimming training plus glibenclamide (SG). The rats were orally administrated with the treatments once a day with the respective treatment, and the training groups were subjected to swimming training every day for 60 min. Fasting blood samples were collected to measure fasting blood glucose, lipid profile, adiponectin, leptin, and insulin concentrations. RESULTS: The results obtained from acute toxicity study showed no toxicity effect of fenugreek seed extract on the tested dose. Biochemical analysis showed significant improvements in all of the groups compared to the control group (p<0.05). Plasma insulin concentration and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was significantly reduced in treated groups compared with the diabetic control group. Plasma leptin were significantly decreased in treated groups compared with the control group; while adiponectin had markedly increased (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that fenugreek seed consuming, alongside swimming exercise, has a strong therapeutic effect on the improvement of diabetic parameters. Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2014

Effects of probiotic yogurt on performance, respiratory and digestive systems of young adult female endurance swimmers: a randomized controlled trial. 📎

Abstract Title: Effects of probiotic yogurt on performance, respiratory and digestive systems of young adult female endurance swimmers: a randomized controlled trial. Abstract Source: Med J Islam Repub Iran. 2013 Aug ;27(3):141-6. PMID: 24791124 Abstract Author(s): Nahid Salarkia, Leili Ghadamli, Farid Zaeri, Leila Sabaghian Rad Article Affiliation: Nahid Salarkia Abstract: BACKGROUND: To determine the effects of probiotic yogurt on performance and health status of young adultfemale endurance swimmers. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, 46 endurance swimmers girls with mean age of 13.8±1.8 years,weight of 48.6±7.5kg and height of 159±5.6cm, were studied. Subjects were randomly assigned into two groups,receiving either 400 ml probiotic yogurt (intervention group) or ordinary yogurt (control group) daily for 8weeks. At the beginning and at the end of the study, the 400-m free swimming record was done and the HarvardStep test was employed to measure VO2max. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using SPSS software.This trial has been registered with IRCT ID of IRCT2012122311849N1. RESULTS: Average changes in the records of the intervention and control groups were 3.9 and 0.5 seconds, respectively(p= 0.22). The intervention group complained of dyspnea for 2.4 days and the value for the controlwas 4.4 days (p=0.024). Values for ear pain were 0.5 and 1.6 days (p=0.008) respectively. The average numberof episodes of respiratory infection in the intervention group was 0.9 day, which was statistically fewer than thatin the control group (1.4 days), P=0.009. CONCLUSIONS: A reduction in the number of episodes of respiratory infections and duration of some symptomssuch as dyspnea and ear pain was observed. Due to the reduction in upper respiratory tract infections of theathletes following intake of probiotic yogurt, improvement in VO2max is possible. Article Published Date : Jul 31, 2013

Low-Intensity swimming training after weaning improves glucose and lipid homeostasis in MSG hypothalamic obese mice.

Abstract Title: Low-Intensity swimming training after weaning improves glucose and lipid homeostasis in MSG hypothalamic obese mice. Abstract Source: Biomed Sci Instrum. 2007;43:272-7. PMID: 21539446 Abstract Author(s): Dionízia Xavier Scomparin, Sabrina Grassiolli, Rodrigo Mello Gomes, Rosana Torrezan, Júlio Cezar de Oliveira, Clarice Gravena, Carolina Costa Pêra, Paulo Cezar de Freitas Mathias Article Affiliation: Laboratory of Secretion Cell Biology, Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, State University of Maringá, Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. Abstract: Low-intensity swimming training, started at an early age, was undertaken to observe glycemic control in hypothalamic obese mice produced by neonatal monosodium l-glutamate (MSG) treatment. Although swimming exercises by weaning pups inhibited hypothalamic obesity onset and recovered sympathoadrenal axis activity, this event was not observed when exercise training is applied to young adult mice. However, the mechanisms producing this improved metabolism are still not fully understood. Current work verifies whether, besides reducing fat tissue accumulation, low-intensity swimming in MSG-weaned mice also improves glycemic control. Although MSG and control mice swam for 15 min/day, 3 days a week, from the weaning stage up to 90 days old, sedentary MSG and normal mice did not exercise at all. After 14 h of fasting, animals were killed at 90 days of age. Retroperitonial fat accumulation was measured to estimate obesity. Fasting blood glucose and insulin concentrations were also measured. Mice were also submitted to ipGTT. MSG obese mice showed fasting hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. However, the exercise was able to block MSG treatment effects. Higher total cholesterol and triglycerides observed in MSG mice were normalized by exercise after weaning. Exercised MSG animals had higher HDLc than the sedentary group. Data suggest that early exercise training maintains normoglycemia, insulin tissue sensitivity, and normal lipid profile in mice programmed to develop metabolic syndrome. Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2007
Therapeutic Actions EXERCISE Swimming

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Antioxidant-rich foods and response to altitude training: A randomized controlled trial in elite endurance athletes.

Related Articles Antioxidant-rich foods and response to altitude training: A randomized controlled trial in elite endurance athletes. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2018 Sep;28(9):1982-1995 Authors: Koivisto AE, Paulsen G, Paur I, Garthe I, Tønnessen E, Raastad T, Bastani NE, Hallén J, Blomhoff R, Bøhn SK Abstract High doses of isolated antioxidant supplements such as vitamin C and E have demonstrated the potential to blunt cellular adaptations to training. It is, however, unknown whether intake of high doses of antioxidants from foods has similar effects. Hence, the aim of the study was to investigate whether intake of antioxidant-rich foods affects adaptations to altitude training in elite athletes. In a randomized controlled trial, 31 national team endurance athletes (23 ± 5 years) ingested antioxidant-rich foods (n = 16) or eucaloric control foods (n = 15) daily during a 3-week altitude training camp (2320 m). Changes from baseline to post-altitude in hemoglobin mass (Hbmass ; optimized CO rebreathing), maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max ; n = 16) or 100 m swimming performance (n = 10), and blood parameters were compared between the groups. The antioxidant group significantly increased total intake of antioxidant-rich foods (~118%) compared to the control group during the intervention. The total study population improved VO2max by 2.5% (1.7 mL/kg/min, P = .006) and Hbmass by 4.7% (48 g, P < .001), but not 100 m swimming performance. No difference was found between the groups regarding changes in Hbmass , VO2max or swimming performance. However, hemoglobin concentration increased more in the antioxidant group (effect size = 0.7; P = .045) with a concomitantly larger decrease in plasma and blood volumes compared to control group. Changes in ferritin and erythropoietin from pre- to post-altitude did not differ between the groups. Doubling the intake of antioxidant-rich foods was well tolerated and did not negatively influence the adaptive response to altitude training in elite endurance athletes. PMID: 29749641 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Functional variability in the flight phase of one metre springboard forward dives.

Related Articles Functional variability in the flight phase of one metre springboard forward dives. Hum Mov Sci. 2018 Jun;59:234-243 Authors: Sayyah M, Hiley MJ, King MA, Yeadon MR Abstract In springboard diving, low variability in takeoff conditions and in the somersault orientation angle at water entry is to be expected since consistency and accuracy are necessary for a good dive. A diver's adjustment of body configuration during flight may be a deliberate compensation for variations in takeoff conditions, leading to increased joint angle variability and decreased entry angle variability. The aim of this research was to investigate the extent to which a diver pre-plans the aerial phase and then makes adjustments in flight to control the entry angle in one metre springboard forward dives. Performances of 15 forward pike dives and 15 forward 2½ somersault pike dives, performed by an international diver were video recorded at 250 Hz. Joint centres during flight were digitized and their spatial coordinates were subsequently reconstructed using the Direct Linear Transformation in order to determine orientation and configuration angles. A computer simulation model was used to investigate the effects of variability in takeoff conditions and configuration variability in flight on the variability of the orientation angle at water entry. The amount of variation in the somersault orientation angle at entry as determined using simulations based on the variability in the takeoff conditions was four times greater than the variation in the recorded performances. It was concluded that the diver used open loop control for the first half of the flight phase and subsequently used feedforward and feedback control to make timing adjustments of hip and arm angles to reduce the variability of his entry orientation angle. PMID: 29738942 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Polygala japonica Houtt. reverses depression-like behavior and restores reduced hippocampal neurogenesis in chronic stress mice.

Related Articles Polygala japonica Houtt. reverses depression-like behavior and restores reduced hippocampal neurogenesis in chronic stress mice. Biomed Pharmacother. 2018 Mar;99:986-996 Authors: Zhou Y, Ma C, Li BM, Sun C Abstract Polygala japonica Houtt. (PJ) has been reported have positive effect on the nerves system including depression, but the underlying mechanism is needed to be understood. Here we show that PJ counteracts behavioral effects induced by chronic restraint, a model of depression mimicking exposure to stress, through adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) enhancement. Chronic stress increased the immobility time in the tail suspension test (TST) and forced swim test (FST) and decreased the time in the center of elevated plus maze (EPM) relative to controls. Moreover, chronic stress also induced the cognitive deficit in novel object recognition test, object location test and barnes maze. These behavioral alterations were accompanied by the decreased AHN. Treatment with PJ reversed the behavioral and AHN alterations. We also found that PJ had no significant effect on cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation in dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, but it inhibited the apoptosis of the newborn neurons by activation of bcl-2 and phopho-erk1/2 and increased the number of the newborn neurons. Our results demonstrate that administration of PJ to chronic stress mice alleviates depression-like behaviors and normalizes the deficit in hippocampal neurogenesis with inhibiting newborn neuron apoptosis. PMID: 29710497 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Accelerometer profile of motion of the pelvic girdle in butterfly swimming.

Related Articles Accelerometer profile of motion of the pelvic girdle in butterfly swimming. Acta Bioeng Biomech. 2018;20(1):159-167 Authors: Staniak Z, Buśko K, Górski M, Pastuszak A Abstract PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to develop a method to measure and analyse kinematics of movement of the pelvic girdle in butterfly swimming in order to support training of technical skills. METHODS: A device for recording triaxial accelerations and triaxial rotational angular velocities was mounted on the dorsal part of the pelvic girdle of athlete. The measurements were performed in ten elite butterfly swimmers (age: 23.1 ± 3.7 years, body height: 187.6 ± 4.3 cm, body mass 83.4 ± 6.33 kg). The task of the athlete was to swim one length of short course pool at maximal intensity. Individual mean graphical and numerical profiles of the kinematics of the movement of the pelvic girdle was computed, within the average cycle based on five consecutive cycles. RESULTS: Statistical analysis of numerical individual parameters of profiles of the athletes studied revealed statistically significant differences between the swimmers. Statistically significant correlations were also found between personal best times in 50 m swimming (r = -0.76, p < 0.05) and 100 m swimming (r = -0.76, p < 0.05) and duration of the part of the cycle connected with the decline in velocity from maximum translational motion velocity obtained during propulsion with the upper and lower limbs to minimum value of the velocity obtained before the beginning of propulsion only with the lower limbs. CONCLUSION: The proposed measurement method, presentation and analysis of the profile of the pelvic girdle motion in butterfly swimming represents a good tool for fast and effective qualitative and quantitative biomechanical evaluation of movement technique components. PMID: 29658533 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Antidepressant-like activity of methyl jasmonate involves modulation of monoaminergic pathways in mice.

Related Articles Antidepressant-like activity of methyl jasmonate involves modulation of monoaminergic pathways in mice. Adv Med Sci. 2018 Mar;63(1):36-42 Authors: Umukoro S, Adebesin A, Agu G, Omorogbe O, Asehinde SB Abstract PURPOSE: The efficacy of current antidepressant drugs has been compromised by adverse effects, low remission and delay onset of action necessitating the search for alternative agents. Methyl jasmonate (MJ), a bioactive compound isolated from Jasminum grandiflorum has been shown to demonstrate antidepressant activity but its mechanism of action remains unknown. Thus, the role of monoaminergic systems in the antidepression-like activity of MJ was investigated in this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were given i.p. injection of MJ (5, 10 and 20mg/kg), imipramine (10mg/kg) and vehicle (10mL/kg) 30min before the forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) were carried out. The involvement of monoaminergic systems in the anti-depressant-like effect of MJ (20mg/kg) was evaluated using p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA), metergoline, yohimbine, prazosin, sulpiride and haloperidol in the TST. RESULTS: MJ significantly decrease the duration of immobility in the FST and TST relative to control suggesting antidepressant-like property. However, pretreatment with yohimbine (1mg/kg, i.p., an α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist) or prazosin (62.5μg/kg, i.p., an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist) attenuated the antidepressant-like activity of MJ. Also, pCPA; an inhibitor of serotonin biosynthesis (100mg/kg, i.p) or metergoline (4mg/kg, i.p., 5-HT2 receptor antagonist) reversed the anti-immobility effect of MJ. Sulpiride (50mg/kg, i.p., a D2 receptor antagonist) or haloperidol (0.2mg/kg, i.p., a dopamine receptor antagonist) reversed the anti-immobility effect of MJ. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems may play a role in the antidepressant-like activity of MJ. PMID: 28818747 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Risk of infectious mononucleosis among agonistic swimmers: a cross-sectional study.

Related Articles Risk of infectious mononucleosis among agonistic swimmers: a cross-sectional study. Ann Ig. 2016 Nov-Dec;28(6):404-408 Authors: Gallone MS, Astuto L, Mastrorilli G, Tamma R, Ascatigno L, Sinesi D, Notarnicola A, Tafuri S Abstract BACKGROUND: The risk of infectious mononucleosis among athletes is quite debated. Some personal observations seem to suggest an increase risk of mononucleosis among athletes, because they attend always close settings with an high probability of respiratory pathogens transmission; overtraining has been also proposed as risk factor. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study in a group of swimmers (aged 11-14 years) of the University Sport Centre of Bari. METHODS: 40 swimmers were interviewed by healthcare personnel at the end of training courses; demographic characteristics, personal habits, information about sport training and diagnosis of mononucleosis were analysed. RESULTS: The life-time incidence of mononucleosis was around 40%; multivariate analysis showed the association between mononucleosis and use of bottles of other persons (aOR=8.2; 95% CI=1.4-49.2; z=2.32; p=0.021) and average duration of training session was longer among subjects who reported mononucleosis than in subjects who did not indicate this disease. CONCLUSIONS: Future multi-centric studies are needed to better define the epidemiology of the mononucleosis in sport settings and to formulate appropriate recommendations to prevent the spreading of this disease. PMID: 27845474 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]