Nigella sativa seed extract attenuates the fatigue induced by exhaustive swimming in rats.
Biomed Rep. 2017 Apr ;6(4):468-474. Epub 2017 Feb 24. PMID: 28413647
Mahbubur Rahman, Dong Kwon Yang, Gi-Beum Kim, Sei-Jin Lee, Shang-Jin Kim
In previous studies, Nigella sativa (NS) has been studied due to its various physiological and pharmacological activities. However, evidence on the effects of NS on physical fatigue following exhaustive swimming remains limited. In the present study, the authors evaluated the potential beneficial effects of NS against the fatigue activity following exhaustive swimming. Rats were orally administered with NS extract (2 g/kg/day) for 21 days, and the anti-fatigue effect was assessed by exhaustive swimming exercise. The presented results indicated that pre-treatment of NS extract significantly increased the time to exhaustion. In hemodynamic parameters, NS extract increased blood pO2 and O2sat, but decreased pCO2. For underlying mechanisms, NS extract protected depletion of energy, indicated by increased levels of blood pH, glucose and tissue glycogen contents, and decreased levels of blood lactate, tissue lactic dehydrogenase and creatine kinase, when the NS extract was pre-treated. In addition, the NS extract inhibited oxidative stress following exhaustive swimming, as reflected by the results of increased levels of superoxide dismutase and redox ratio, and decreased the level of malondialdehyde when the NS extract was pre-treated. Collectively, the present study demonstrated that NS extract has an anti-fatigue activity against exhaustive swimming by energy restoration and oxidative-stress defense.
Article Published Date : Mar 31, 2017
Effect of exercise on serum vitamin D and tissue vitamin D receptors in experimentally induced type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
J Adv Res. 2016 Sep ;7(5):671-9. Epub 2016 Jul 15. PMID: 27504197
Yosria E Aly, Azza S Abdou, Mona M Rashad, Menatallah M Nassef
Yosria E Aly
This work aimed to study the effect of swimming exercise on serum vitamin D level and tissue vitamin D receptors in experimentally induced type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Sixty adult male rats were divided into control and diabetic groups. Each was further subdivided into sedentary and exercised subgroups. Diabetes Mellitus was induced by a single intraperitoneal dose of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg) dissolved in cold 0.01 M citrate buffer (pH 4.5). The exercised subgroups underwent swimming for 60 min, 5 times a week for 4 weeks. Serum glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipids, vitamin D and tissue Vitamin D receptors (VDR) were evaluated. Significant increase in serum glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, cholesterol, triglycerides, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in sedentary diabetic rats was detected. On the other hand, high density lipoprotein (HDL), free fatty acids, serum vitamin D and pancreatic, adipose, and muscular VDR showed a significant decrease in the same group. It is evident that all these parameters were reversed by swimming exercise indicating its beneficial role in type 2 Diabetes. In diabetic groups; serum vitamin D was found to be correlated negatively with serum glucose, insulin, HOMA, cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL and positively correlated with HDL and tissue VDR. In conclusion, Disturbed vitamin D is associated with metabolic impairments in sedentary diabetic rats. Moderate swimming exercise is beneficial in improving these consequences through modulation of vitamin D status. Future studies could be designed to investigate the effect of the combination of vitamin D intake with exercise in diabetic patients.
Article Published Date : Aug 31, 2016
In vivo and in vitro evaluation of the effects of Urtica dioica and swimming activity on diabetic factors and pancreatic beta cells.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016 ;16(1):101. Epub 2016 Mar 15. PMID: 26980377
Abbas Ranjbari, Mohammad Ali Azarbayjani, Ashril Yusof, Abdul Halim Mokhtar, Samad Akbarzadeh, Mohamed Yousif Ibrahim, Bahman Tarverdizadeh, Parviz Farzadinia, Reza Hajiaghaee, Firouzeh Dehghan
BACKGROUND: Urtica dioica (UD) has been identified as a traditional herbal medicine. This study aimed to investigate the effect of UD extract and swimming activity on diabetic parameters through in vivo and in vitro experiments.
METHODS: Adult WKY male rats were randomly distributed in nine groups: intact control, diabetic control, diabetic + 625 mg/kg, 1.25 g/kg UD, diabetic + 100 mg/kg Metformin, diabetic + swimming, diabetic + swimming 625 mg/kg, 1.25 g/kg UD, and diabetic +100 mg/kg Metformin + swimming. The hearts of the animals were punctured, and blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. The entire pancreas was exposed for histologic examination. The effect of UD on insulin secretion by RIN-5F cells in 6.25 or 12.5 mM glucose dose was examined. Glucose uptake by cultured L6 myotubes was determined.
RESULTS: The serum glucose concentration decreased, the insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity significantly increased in treated groups. These changes were more pronounced in the group that received UD extract and swimming training. Regeneration and less beta cell damage of Langerhans islets were observed in the treated groups. UD treatment increased insulin secretion in the RIN-5F cells and glucose uptake in the L6 myotubes cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Swimming exercises accompanied by consuming UD aqueous extracts effectively improved diabetic parameters, repaired pancreatic tissues in streptozotocin-induced diabetics in vivo, and increased glucose uptake or insulin in UD-treated cells in vitro.
Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2015
Evaluation of Trigonella foenum-graecum extract in combination with swimming exercise compared to glibenclamide consumption on type 2 Diabetic rodents.
Food Nutr Res. 2015 ;59:29717. Epub 2015 Dec 22. PMID: 26699937
Sajad Arshadi, Mohammad Ali Azarbayjani, Fatemeh Hajaghaalipor, Ashril Yusof, Maghsoud Peeri, Salar Bakhtiyari, Robert S Stannard, Noor Azuan Abu Osman, Firouzeh Dehghan
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of fenugreek seed extract in combination with swimming exercise compared to glibenclamide consumption on type 2 diabetic rats.
DESIGN: The acute toxicity test was carried out to choose the safe doses and identify the toxicity effects of the fenugreek seed extract. To investigate the hypoglycemic effect of the extract and its effect in combination with swimming training, 80 Wistar Kyoto male streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were divided randomly into eight groups: diabetic control (C); fenugreek seed extract 0.8 g/kg (F1); fenugreek extract 1.6 g/kg (F2); swimming training (S); swimming training plus fenugreek extract 0.8 g/kg (SF1); swimming training plus fenugreek extract 1.6 g/kg (SF2); glibenclamide (G) and swimming training plus glibenclamide (SG). The rats were orally administrated with the treatments once a day with the respective treatment, and the training groups were subjected to swimming training every day for 60 min. Fasting blood samples were collected to measure fasting blood glucose, lipid profile, adiponectin, leptin, and insulin concentrations.
RESULTS: The results obtained from acute toxicity study showed no toxicity effect of fenugreek seed extract on the tested dose. Biochemical analysis showed significant improvements in all of the groups compared to the control group (p<0.05). Plasma insulin concentration and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was significantly reduced in treated groups compared with the diabetic control group. Plasma leptin were significantly decreased in treated groups compared with the control group; while adiponectin had markedly increased (p<0.05).
CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that fenugreek seed consuming, alongside swimming exercise, has a strong therapeutic effect on the improvement of diabetic parameters.
Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2014
Effects of probiotic yogurt on performance, respiratory and digestive systems of young adult female endurance swimmers: a randomized controlled trial.
Med J Islam Repub Iran. 2013 Aug ;27(3):141-6. PMID: 24791124
Nahid Salarkia, Leili Ghadamli, Farid Zaeri, Leila Sabaghian Rad
BACKGROUND: To determine the effects of probiotic yogurt on performance and health status of young adultfemale endurance swimmers.
METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, 46 endurance swimmers girls with mean age of 13.8±1.8 years,weight of 48.6±7.5kg and height of 159±5.6cm, were studied. Subjects were randomly assigned into two groups,receiving either 400 ml probiotic yogurt (intervention group) or ordinary yogurt (control group) daily for 8weeks. At the beginning and at the end of the study, the 400-m free swimming record was done and the HarvardStep test was employed to measure VO2max. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using SPSS software.This trial has been registered with IRCT ID of IRCT2012122311849N1.
RESULTS: Average changes in the records of the intervention and control groups were 3.9 and 0.5 seconds, respectively(p= 0.22). The intervention group complained of dyspnea for 2.4 days and the value for the controlwas 4.4 days (p=0.024). Values for ear pain were 0.5 and 1.6 days (p=0.008) respectively. The average numberof episodes of respiratory infection in the intervention group was 0.9 day, which was statistically fewer than thatin the control group (1.4 days), P=0.009.
CONCLUSIONS: A reduction in the number of episodes of respiratory infections and duration of some symptomssuch as dyspnea and ear pain was observed. Due to the reduction in upper respiratory tract infections of theathletes following intake of probiotic yogurt, improvement in VO2max is possible.
Article Published Date : Jul 31, 2013
Low-Intensity swimming training after weaning improves glucose and lipid homeostasis in MSG hypothalamic obese mice.
Biomed Sci Instrum. 2007;43:272-7. PMID: 21539446
Dionízia Xavier Scomparin, Sabrina Grassiolli, Rodrigo Mello Gomes, Rosana Torrezan, Júlio Cezar de Oliveira, Clarice Gravena, Carolina Costa Pêra, Paulo Cezar de Freitas Mathias
Laboratory of Secretion Cell Biology, Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, State University of Maringá, Maringá, Paraná, Brazil.
Low-intensity swimming training, started at an early age, was undertaken to observe glycemic control in hypothalamic obese mice produced by neonatal monosodium l-glutamate (MSG) treatment. Although swimming exercises by weaning pups inhibited hypothalamic obesity onset and recovered sympathoadrenal axis activity, this event was not observed when exercise training is applied to young adult mice. However, the mechanisms producing this improved metabolism are still not fully understood. Current work verifies whether, besides reducing fat tissue accumulation, low-intensity swimming in MSG-weaned mice also improves glycemic control. Although MSG and control mice swam for 15 min/day, 3 days a week, from the weaning stage up to 90 days old, sedentary MSG and normal mice did not exercise at all. After 14 h of fasting, animals were killed at 90 days of age. Retroperitonial fat accumulation was measured to estimate obesity. Fasting blood glucose and insulin concentrations were also measured. Mice were also submitted to ipGTT. MSG obese mice showed fasting hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. However, the exercise was able to block MSG treatment effects. Higher total cholesterol and triglycerides observed in MSG mice were normalized by exercise after weaning. Exercised MSG animals had higher HDLc than the sedentary group. Data suggest that early exercise training maintains normoglycemia, insulin tissue sensitivity, and normal lipid profile in mice programmed to develop metabolic syndrome.
Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2007
Swimming intervention alleviates insulin resistance and chronic inflammation in metabolic syndrome.
Exp Ther Med. 2019 Jan;17(1):57-62
Authors: Tan J, Guo L
In view of the high incidence of metabolic syndrome and the role of exercise in promoting metabolic disorders, the present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of swimming intervention on metabolic syndrome. In the present study, a total of 100 patients with metabolic syndrome and 100 healthy individuals were included. Fasting blood was extracted from each participant, and the serum levels of interleukin (IL)-1, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and IL-8 were measured by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Patients were randomly divided into five groups (groups A-E). Patients in group A was treated with conventional drug treatment. Besides conventional treatment, patients in groups B-E were also subjected to swimming intervention for 15, 30, 45 and 60 min each time, respectively, four times a week for 3 months. Changes in the homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) score, and in the serum levels of IL-1, hs-CRP, TNF-α and IL-8 were recorded. Furthermore, muscle tissues were collected from patients, and the expression levels of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) and protein kinase B (Akt) in the tissues were detected by western blot assay. The results revealed that HOMA-IR and the serum levels of IL-1, hs-CRP, TNF-α and IL-8 were significantly higher in metabolic syndrome patients as compared with those in the normal controls, while swimming intervention reduced HOMA-IR and these serum levels to different extents. Swimming intervention also promoted IRS-1 and Akt phosphorylation, and increased GLUT4 expression level. Thus, it is concluded that swimming intervention may improve metabolic syndrome through multiple pathways.
PMID: 30651765 [PubMed]
Cardiorespiratory Responses to Pool Floor Walking in People Poststroke.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2018 03;99(3):542-547
Authors: Jeng B, Fujii T, Lim H, Vrongistinos K, Jung T
OBJECTIVE: To compare cardiorespiratory responses between pool floor walking and overground walking (OW) in people poststroke.
DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.
SETTING: University-based therapeutic exercise facility.
PARTICIPANTS: Participants (N=28) were comprised of 14 community-dwelling individuals poststroke (5.57±3.57y poststroke) and 14 age- and sex-matched healthy adults (mean age, 58.00±15.51y; male/female ratio, 9:5).
INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A telemetric metabolic system was used to collect cardiorespiratory variables, including oxygen consumption (V˙o2), energy expenditure (EE), and expired volume per unit time (V˙e), during 6-minute walking sessions in chest-depth water and on land at a matched speed, determined by average of maximum walking speed in water.
RESULTS: Individuals poststroke elicited no significant differences in cardiorespiratory responses between pool floor walking and OW. However, healthy controls showed significant increases in mean V˙o2 values by 94%, EE values by 109%, and V˙e values by 94% (all P<.05) during pool floor walking compared with OW. A 2×2 mixed model analysis of variance revealed a significant group × condition interaction in V˙o2, in which the control group increased V˙o2 from OW to pool floor walking, whereas the stroke group did not.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that people poststroke, unlike healthy adults, do not increase EE while walking in water compared with on land. Unlike stationary walking on an aquatic treadmill, forward locomotion during pool floor walking at faster speeds may have increased drag force, which requires greater EE from healthy adults. Without demanding excessive EE, walking in water may offer a naturally supportive environment for gait training in the early stages of rehabilitation.
PMID: 28987900 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]