Lanthionine ketimine-5-ethyl ester provides neuroprotection in a zebrafish model of okadaic acid-induced Alzheimer's disease.
Neurochem Int. 2018 Feb 20;:
Authors: Koehler D, Shah ZA, Hensley K, Williams FE
Okadaic acid (OKA) is a protein phosphatase-2A inhibitor that is used to induce neurodegeneration and study disease states such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Lanthionine ketimine-5-ethyl ester (LKE) is a bioavailable derivative of the naturally occurring brain sulfur metabolite, lanthionine ketimine (LK). In previously conducted studies, LKE exhibited neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties in murine models but its mechanism of action remains to be clarified. In this study, a recently established zebrafish OKA-induced AD model was utilized to further elucidate the neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties of LKE in the context of an AD-like condition. The fish were divided into 3 groups containing 8 fish per group. Group #1 = negative control, Group #2 = 100 nM OKA, Group #3 = 100 nM OKA +500 μM LKE. OKA caused severe cognitive impairments in the zebrafish, but concomitant treatment with LKE protected against cognitive impairments. Further, LKE significantly and substantially reduced the number of apoptotic brain cells, increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and increased phospho-activation of the pro-survival factors pAkt (Ser 473) and pCREB (Ser133). These findings clarify the neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects of LKE by highlighting particular survival pathways that are bolstered by the experimental therapeutic LKE.
PMID: 29475037 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Antibodies in the Diagnosis, Prognosis, and Prediction of Psychotic Disorders.
Schizophr Bull. 2018 Feb 21;:
Authors: Pollak TA, Rogers JP, Nagele RG, Peakman M, Stone JM, David AS, McGuire P
Blood-based biomarker discovery for psychotic disorders has yet to impact upon routine clinical practice. In physical disorders antibodies have established roles as diagnostic, prognostic and predictive (theranostic) biomarkers, particularly in disorders thought to have a substantial autoimmune or infective aetiology. Two approaches to antibody biomarker identification are distinguished: a "top-down" approach, in which antibodies to specific antigens are sought based on the known function of the antigen and its putative role in the disorder, and emerging "bottom-up" or "omics" approaches that are agnostic as to the significance of any one antigen, using high-throughput arrays to identify distinctive components of the antibody repertoire. Here we review the evidence for antibodies (to self-antigens as well as infectious organism and dietary antigens) as biomarkers of diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment response in psychotic disorders. Neuronal autoantibodies have current, and increasing, clinical utility in the diagnosis of organic or atypical psychosis syndromes. Antibodies to selected infectious agents show some promise in predicting cognitive impairment and possibly other symptom domains (eg, suicidality) within psychotic disorders. Finally, infectious antibodies and neuronal and other autoantibodies have recently emerged as potential biomarkers of response to anti-infective therapies, immunotherapies, or other novel therapeutic strategies in psychotic disorders, and have a clear role in stratifying patients for future clinical trials. As in nonpsychiatric disorders, combining biomarkers and large-scale use of "bottom-up" approaches to biomarker identification are likely to maximize the eventual clinical utility of antibody biomarkers in psychotic disorders.
PMID: 29474698 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Resveratrol, an antioxidant, protects spinal cord injury in rats by suppressing MAPK pathway.
Saudi J Biol Sci. 2018 Feb;25(2):259-266
Authors: Fu S, Lv R, Wang L, Hou H, Liu H, Shao S
Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in various plants, including grapes, plums and peanuts has shown various medIRInal properties, including antioxidant, protection of cardiovascular disease and cancer risk. However, the effects of resveratrol on spinal cord reperfusion injury have not been investigated. Hence, the present study was designed to evaluate the effect of resveratrol on nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)/p38MAPK signaling pathway and to elucidate its regulating effect on the protection of spinal cord injury. Spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) was performed by the infrarenal abdominal aorta with mini aneurysm clip model. The expressions of iNOS and p38MAPK and the levels of biochemical parameters, including nitrite/nitrate, malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced oxidation products (AOPP), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were measured in control and experimental groups. IRI-induced rats treated with 10 mg/kg resveratrol protected spinal cord from ischemia injury as supported by improved biological parameters measured in spinal cord tissue homogenates. The resveratrol treatment significantly decreased the levels of plasma nitrite/nitrate, iNOS mRNA and protein expressions and phosphorylation of p38MAPK in IRI-induced rats. Further, IRI-produced free radicals were reduced by resveratrol treatment by increasing enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant levels such as GSH, SOD and CAT. Taken together, administration of resveratrol protects the damage caused by spinal cord ischemia with potential mechanism of suppressing the activation of iNOS/p38MAPK pathway and subsequent reduction of oxidative stress due to IRI.
PMID: 29472775 [PubMed]
Role of extracellular polymeric substances in polymicrobial biofilm infections of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Candida albicans modelled in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.
Pathog Dis. 2017 Jul 31;75(5):
Authors: Holt JE, Houston A, Adams C, Edwards S, Kjellerup BV
Biofilms are formed by communities of microorganisms living in a self-produced extracellular polymeric matrix attached to a surface. When living in a biofilm microorganisms change phenotype and thus are less susceptible to antibiotic treatment and biofilm infections can become severe. The aim of this study was to determine if the presence of multikingdom microorganisms alters the virulence of a biofilm infection in a host organism. The coexistence of Candida albicans and Staphylococcus epidermidis in biofilm was examined in the nematode model Caenorhabditis elegans. It was evaluated if the hyphal form of C. albicans and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) formed by S. epidermidis increases biofilm virulence. Survival assays were performed, where C. elegans nematodes were exposed to S. epidermidis and C. albicans. Single inoculation assays showed a decreased survival rate after 2 days following exposure, while dual inoculation assays showed that a clinical S. epidermidis strain together with C. albicans significantly increased the virulence and decreased nematode survival. EPS seem to interfere with the bacterial attachment to hyphae, since the EPS overproducing S. epidermidis strain was most virulent. The clinical S. epidermidis paired with C. albicans led to a severe infection in the nematodes resulting in reduced survival.
PMID: 28475673 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Growth Hormone Receptor Knockdown Sensitizes Human Melanoma Cells to Chemotherapy by Attenuating Expression of ABC Drug Efflux Pumps.
Horm Cancer. 2017 Jun;8(3):143-156
Authors: Basu R, Baumgaertel N, Wu S, Kopchick JJ
Melanoma remains one of the most therapy-resistant forms of human cancer despite recent introductions of highly efficacious targeted therapies. The intrinsic therapy resistance of human melanoma is largely due to abundant expression of a repertoire of xenobiotic efflux pumps of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family. Here, we report that GH action is a key mediator of chemotherapeutic resistance in human melanoma cells. We investigated multiple ABC efflux pumps (ABCB1, ABCB5, ABCB8, ABCC1, ABCC2, ABCG1, and ABCG2) reportedly associated with melanoma drug resistance in different human melanoma cells and tested the efficacy of five different anti-cancer compounds (cisplatin, doxorubicin, oridonin, paclitaxel, vemurafenib) with decreased GH action. We found that GH treatment of human melanoma cells upregulates expression of multiple ABC transporters and increases the EC50 of melanoma drug vemurafenib. Also, vemurafenib-resistant melanoma cells had upregulated levels of GH receptor (GHR) expression as well as ABC efflux pumps. GHR knockdown (KD) using siRNA in human melanoma cells treated with sub-EC50 doses of anti-tumor compounds resulted in significantly increased drug retention, decreased cell proliferation and increased drug efficacy, compared to mock-transfected controls. Our set of findings identify an unknown mechanism of GH regulation in mediating melanoma drug resistance and validates GHR as a unique therapeutic target for sensitizing highly therapy-resistant human melanoma cells to lower doses of anti-cancer drugs.
PMID: 28293855 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]