Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Horticultural Therapy (Gardening)

Gardening is beneficial for health: A meta-analysis. 📎

Abstract Title: Gardening is beneficial for health: A meta-analysis. Abstract Source: Prev Med Rep. 2017 Mar ;5:92-99. Epub 2016 Nov 14. PMID: 27981022 Abstract Author(s): Masashi Soga, Kevin J Gaston, Yuichi Yamaura Article Affiliation: Masashi Soga Abstract: There is increasing evidence that gardening provides substantial human health benefits. However, no formal statistical assessment has been conducted to test this assertion. Here, we present the results of a meta-analysis of research examining the effects of gardening, including horticultural therapy, on health. We performed a literature search to collect studies that compared health outcomes in control (before participating in gardening or non-gardeners) and treatment groups (after participating in gardening or gardeners) in January 2016. The mean difference in health outcomes between the two groups was calculated for each study, and then the weighted effect size determined both across all and sets of subgroup studies. Twenty-two case studies (published after 2001) were included in the meta-analysis, which comprised 76 comparisons between control and treatment groups. Most studies came from the United States, followed by Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. Studies reported a wide range of health outcomes, such as reductions in depression, anxiety, and body mass index, as well as increases in life satisfaction, quality of life, and sense of community. Meta-analytic estimates showed a significant positive effect of gardening on the health outcomes both for all and sets of subgroup studies, whilst effect sizes differed among eight subgroups. Although Egger's test indicated the presence of publication bias, significant positive effects of gardening remained after adjusting for this using trim and fill analysis. This study has provided robust evidence for the positive effects of gardening on health. A regular dose of gardening can improve public health. Article Published Date : Feb 28, 2017

The effects of gardening on quality of life in people with stroke.

Abstract Title: The effects of gardening on quality of life in people with stroke. Abstract Source: Work. 2016 Jun 27 ;54(3):557-67. PMID: 27372897 Abstract Author(s): Sui-Hua Ho, Chiuhsiang Joe Lin, Fen-Ling Kuo Article Affiliation: Sui-Hua Ho Abstract: BACKGROUND: Compared with traditional rehabilitation, gardening has been viewed as a more occupation-based intervention to help patients improve functional performance. However, there is still a need for evidence-based research into what factors interact to create the beneficial effects of gardening for people who have sustained a cerebral vascular accident (CVA). OBJECTIVE: To explore how plant, gender, and the time after stroke onset influenced improvements in the quality of life of patients in a gardening program. METHODS: One treatment of tending short-term plants, and another treatment of tending long-term plants were compared. Quality of life improvement was evaluated according to three factors: plant, gender, and the time after stroke onset. The data were analyzed with 2k replicated factorial designs. RESULTS: The 2k factorial design with replication indicated significant effects on both the social role and the family role. For the social role, the interaction of plant and gender difference was significant. For the family role, the significant effects were found on interaction of plant with both gender and the time after stroke onset. CONCLUSIONS: Tending plants with different life cycles has varied effects on the quality of life of people who have sustained a CVA. Factors related to gender and the time after stroke onset influenced role competency in this sample. Article Published Date : Jun 26, 2016

Effect of horticultural therapy on wellbeing among dementia day care programme participants: A mixed-methods study (Innovative Practice). 📎

Abstract Title: Effect of horticultural therapy on wellbeing among dementia day care programme participants: A mixed-methods study (Innovative Practice). Abstract Source: Dementia (London). 2016 Apr 11. Epub 2016 Apr 11. PMID: 27072371 Abstract Author(s): Jodi Hall, Gary Mitchell, Catherine Webber, Karen Johnson Article Affiliation: Jodi Hall Abstract: Fourteen people attending an adult day programme were recruited to a structured horticultural therapy programme which took place over 10 weeks. The effects were assessed using Dementia Care Mapping and questionnaires completed by family carers. High levels of wellbeing were observed while the participants were engaged in horticultural therapy, and these were sustained once the programme was completed. This study adds to the growing evidence on the benefits of horticultural therapy for people with dementia who have enjoyed gardening in the past. Article Published Date : Apr 10, 2016

Horticultural therapy in dementia care: a literature review.

Abstract Title: Horticultural therapy in dementia care: a literature review. Abstract Source: Nurs Stand. 2016 Jan 20 ;30(21):41-7. PMID: 26786461 Abstract Author(s): Marianne Blake, Gary Mitchell Article Affiliation: Marianne Blake Abstract: Aim To present a narrative review of the empirical literature on the use of horticultural therapy in dementia care. Method A comprehensive literature search, conducted in December 2014, resulted in the selection of 15 primary research articles for review. Of these, three used qualitative methods, five used quantitative methods and seven used mixed methodology. The articles were critically appraised, and the narrative synthesis used a thematic approach whereby prominent themes from the articles were grouped to form representative themes. Findings Three main themes emerged from the narrative synthesis: the emotional health of people living with dementia, their perceived self-identity and their levels of engagement. Conclusion Horticultural therapy can be beneficial. At a macro-level, it is an inexpensive therapy that does not require specialist training to deliver. At a micro-level, it enhances the wellbeing of people living with dementia. Recommendations are made to promote access to appropriate horticultural therapy for people living with dementia, and for further research in this area. Article Published Date : Jan 19, 2016

Horticultural therapy: a pilot study on modulating cortisol levels and indices of substance craving, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and quality of life in veterans.

Abstract Title: Horticultural therapy: a pilot study on modulating cortisol levels and indices of substance craving, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and quality of life in veterans. Abstract Source: Altern Ther Health Med. 2015 Jul-Aug;21(4):36-41. PMID: 26030115 Abstract Author(s): Mark B Detweiler, Jennifer A Self, Sandra Lane, Luise Spencer, Brian Lutgens, Dong-Yun Kim, Mary H Halling, Tammie C Rudder, Lauren P Lehmann Article Affiliation: Mark B Detweiler Abstract: CONTEXT: Horticultural therapy (HT) is a subgroup of occupational therapy (OT). Both HT and OT have been successful as adjunctive treatment modalities in substance abuse treatment. Studies have indicated that gardening promotes neuroendocrine and affective restoration from stress. OBJECTIVES: The study intended to assess the effect of HT versus nonhorticultural OT on cortisol levels, depression, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol cravings, and quality of life. METHODS: The research team designed a randomized pilot study. SETTING: The study was open for participation from July 2012-October 2012. It took place during multiple occurrences of a 28-d treatment programs for substance use disorder at a Veterans Affairs medical center. Participants• Participants were 49 veterans, averaging 46.4 y old (SD = 11.9); the dropout rate was 37%. INTERVENTION: Participants were randomly assigned to the HT or the OT group. They attended supervised HT and OT groups 5 h/d for 3 wk. Outcome Measures• Pre- and posttreatment, participants completed the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire-Short Form (Q-LES-Q-SF), the Alcohol Craving Questionnaire (ACQ-NOW), the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist Civilian Version (PCLC), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Salivary cortisol samples were taken at wk 1, 2, and 3. RESULTS: A repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) (F2,20 = 0.878) revealed that the HT performed was associated with a 12% reduction in salivary cortisol levels from wk 1 to wk 3, but the difference was not statistically significant (P = .43). Separate 1-way analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) revealed no statistically significant differences in the self-administered tests, although both the Q-LES-Q-SF and CES-D showed a trend toward improving quality of life and depressive symptoms in the HT group compared with the OT group. Additional analysis of the nonbiologic tests suggests that most participants in the HT and OT had some benefit from the programmed activities. CONCLUSIONS: The trends suggest that HT may modulate stress in veterans, as evidenced by decreased cortisol levels and depressive symptoms, and may improve quality of life more than the programs in which the OT group participated. Further investigation with larger samples, including a nontreatment control group, is needed to determine whether the observed trends are treatment effects or due to abstinence. Article Published Date : Jun 30, 2015

Secret life of plants: from memory to intelligence. 📎

Abstract Title: Secret life of plants: from memory to intelligence. Abstract Source: Plant Signal Behav. 2010 Nov;5(11):1391-4. Epub 2010 Nov 1. PMID: 21051941 Abstract Author(s): Stanislaw Karpiński, Magdalena Szechyńska-Hebda Article Affiliation: Department of Genetics, Breeding, and Plant Biotechnology, Faculty of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warszawa, Poland. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: Plants are able to perform photosynthesis and cannot escape from environmental stresses, so they therefore developed sophisticated, highly responsive and dynamic physiology. Others' and our results indicate that plants solve their optimal light acclimation and immune defenses, photosynthesis and transpiration by a computational algorithm of the cellular automation. Our recent results however suggest that plants are capable of processing information encrypted in light intensity and in its energy. With the help of nonphotochemical quenching and photoelectrophysiological signaling (PEPS) plants are able to perform biological quantum computation and memorize light training in order to optimize their Darwinian fitness. Animals have their network of neuron synapses, electrophysiological circuits and memory, but plants have their network of chloroplasts connected by stromules, PEPS circuits transduced by bundle sheath cells and cellular light memory. It is suggested that plants could be intelligent organisms with much higher organism organization levels than it was thought before. Article Published Date : Nov 01, 2010

Therapeutic horticulture in clinical depression: a prospective study of active components.

Abstract Title: Therapeutic horticulture in clinical depression: a prospective study of active components. Abstract Source: J Adv Nurs. 2010 Sep;66(9):2002-13. Epub 2010 Jul 2. PMID: 20626473 Abstract Author(s): Marianne Thorsen Gonzalez, Terry Hartig, Grete Grindal Patil, Egil W Martinsen, Marit Kirkevold Article Affiliation: Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, As, Norway. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: AIM: This paper is a report of a study conducted to assess change in depression severity, perceived attentional capacity and rumination (brooding) in individuals with clinical depression during a therapeutic horticulture programme and to investigate if the changes were mediated by experiences of being away and fascination. BACKGROUND: Individuals with clinical depression suffer from distortion of attention and rumination. Interventions can help to disrupt maladaptive rumination and promote restoration of depleted attentional capacity. METHOD: A single-group study was conducted with a convenience sample of 28 people with clinical depression in 2009. Data were collected before, twice during, and immediately after a 12-week therapeutic horticulture programme, and at 3-month follow-up. Assessment instruments were the Beck Depression Inventory, Attentional Function Index, Brooding Scale, and Being Away and Fascination subscales from the Perceived Restorativeness Scale. FINDINGS: Mean Beck Depression Inventory scores declined by 4.5 points during the intervention (F = 5.49, P = 0.002). The decline was clinically relevant for 50% of participants. Attentional Function Index scores increased (F = 4.14, P = 0.009), while Brooding scores decreased (F = 4.51, P = 0.015). The changes in Beck Depression Inventory and Attentional Function Index scores were mediated by increases in Being Away and Fascination, and decline in Beck Depression Inventory scores was also mediated by decline in Brooding. Participants maintained their improvements in Beck Depression Inventory scores at 3-month follow-up. CONCLUSION: Being away and fascination appear to work as active components in a therapeutic horticulture intervention for clinical depression. Article Published Date : Sep 01, 2010

Ornamental indoor plants in hospital rooms enhanced health outcomes of patients recovering from surgery.

Abstract Title: Ornamental indoor plants in hospital rooms enhanced health outcomes of patients recovering from surgery. Abstract Source: J Altern Complement Med. 2009 Sep;15(9):975-80. PMID: 19715461 Abstract Author(s): Seong-Hyun Park, Richard H Mattson Article Affiliation: Department of Horticulture, Forestry and Recreation Resources, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: BACKGROUND: Clinical trials have not been reported concerning the health benefits of viewing indoor plants on stress and recovery of surgical patients within a hospital setting. Using various medical and psychologic measurements, this study performed a randomized clinical trial with surgical patients to evaluate whether plants in hospital rooms have therapeutic influences. METHODS: Ninety (90) patients recovering from a hemorrhoidectomy were randomly assigned to either control or plant rooms. With half the patients, live plants were placed in their rooms during postoperative recovery periods. Data collected for each patient included length of hospitalization, analgesics used for postoperative pain control, vital signs, ratings of pain intensity, pain distress, anxiety and fatigue, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Form Y-1, the Environmental Assessment Scale, and the Patient's Room Satisfaction Questionnaire. RESULTS: Viewing plants during the recovery period had a positive influence linking directly to health outcomes of surgical patients. Patients in hospital rooms with plants and flowers had significantly more positive physiologic responses evidenced by lower systolic blood pressure, and lower ratings of pain, anxiety, and fatigue than patients in the control room. Patients with plants also felt more positively about their rooms and evaluated them with higher satisfaction when compared with patients in similar rooms without plants. Based on patients' comments, plants brightened up the room environment, reduced stress, and also conveyed positive impressions of hospital employees caring for patients. CONCLUSIONS: Findings of this study confirmed the therapeutic value of plants in the hospital environment as a noninvasive, inexpensive, and effective complementary medicine for surgical patients. Health care professionals and hospital administrators need to consider the use of plants and flowers to enhance healing environments for patients. Article Published Date : Sep 01, 2009

Biophilia: does visual contact with nature impact on health and well-being? 📎

Abstract Title: Biophilia: does visual contact with nature impact on health and well-being? Abstract Source: Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2009 Sep;6(9):2332-43. Epub 2009 Aug 31. PMID: 19826546 Abstract Author(s): Bjørn Grinde, Grete Grindal Patil Article Affiliation: Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, 0403 Oslo, Norway. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: It is concluded that an environment devoid of Nature may act as a "discord", i.e., have a negative effect. While the term mismatch is used for any difference between present living conditions and the environment of evolutionary adaptation, discords are mismatches with a potentially undesirable impact on health or quality of life. The problem is partly due to the visual absence of plants, and may be ameliorated by adding elements of Nature, e.g., by creating parks, by offering a view through windows, and by potted plants. The conclusion is based on an evaluation of some fifty relevant empirical studies. Article Published Date : Sep 01, 2009

Therapeutic horticulture in clinical depression: a prospective study.

Abstract Title: Therapeutic horticulture in clinical depression: a prospective study. Abstract Source: Res Theory Nurs Pract. 2009;23(4):312-28. PMID: 19999748 Abstract Author(s): Marianne Thorsen Gonzalez, Terry Hartig, Grete Grindal Patil, Egil W Martinsen, Marit Kirkevold Article Affiliation: Norwegian University of Life Sciences, As, Norway. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: Clinically depressed persons suffer from impaired mood and distortion of cognition. This study assessed changes in depression severity and perceived attentional capacity of clinically depressed adults (N=18) during a 12-week therapeutic horticulture program. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Attentional Function Index (AFI) were administered at baseline, twice during (4 and 8 weeks), and immediately after the intervention (12 weeks), and at a 3-month follow-up. Experiences of being away and fascination related to the intervention were measured at 4, 8, and 12 weeks. The mean BDI score declined 9.7 points from pretest (27.3) to posttest (p<.001) and were clinically relevant (deltaBDI>or =6) for 72% of the cases. The mean AFI score increased 10.2 points from pretest (68.8) to posttest (p = .06). The greatest change in BDI and AFI scores occurred in the initial weeks of the intervention. The reduction in BDI scores remained significant and clinically relevant at the 3-month follow-up (N=16). The decline in depression severity during the intervention correlated strongly with the degree to which the participants found that it captured their attention. Therapeutic horticulture may decrease depression severity and improve perceived attentional capacity by engaging effortless attention and interrupting rumination. Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2009

Farm exposure in utero may protect against asthma, hay fever and eczema. 📎

Abstract Title: Farm exposure in utero may protect against asthma, hay fever and eczema. Abstract Source: Eur Respir J. 2008 Sep;32(3):603-11. Epub 2008 Apr 30. PMID: 18448493 Abstract Author(s): J Douwes, S Cheng, N Travier, C Cohet, A Niesink, J McKenzie, C Cunningham, G Le Gros, E von Mutius, N Pearce Article Affiliation: Centre for Public Health Research, Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: The aim of the present study was to assess which factors contribute to the lower prevalence of allergic diseases in farmers' children, and the importance of timing of exposure. In a cross-sectional questionnaire survey, asthma symptoms, hay fever and eczema were assessed, as well as current, early and prenatal farm-related exposures in 1,333 farmers' children and 566 reference children aged 5-17 yrs. Farmers' children had a lower incidence of asthma symptoms and eczema. Current and maternal exposure during pregnancy to animals and/or grain and hay reduced the risk of asthma symptoms, hay fever and eczema. The exposure-response association for maternal exposure was nonlinear for most outcomes. After mutual adjustment, the effects of prenatal exposure remained unchanged whereas current exposure remained protective only for asthma medication, asthma ever and hay fever. Exposure during the first 2 yrs was not associated with symptoms, after controlling for prenatal exposure. A combination of prenatal and current exposure was most strongly associated with wheeze (odds ratio (OR) 0.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.28-0.80), asthma medication (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.30-0.82), asthma ever (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.33-0.76), hay fever (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.30-0.73) and eczema (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.30-0.70). Prenatal exposure may contribute to the low prevalence of asthma, hay fever and eczema in farmers' children, but continued exposure may be required to maintain optimal protection. Article Published Date : Sep 01, 2008

Lifelong farm exposure may strongly reduce the risk of asthma in adults.

Abstract Title: Lifelong farm exposure may strongly reduce the risk of asthma in adults. Abstract Source: Allergy. 2007 Oct;62(10):1158-65. PMID: 17845585 Abstract Author(s): J Douwes, N Travier, K Huang, S Cheng, J McKenzie, G Le Gros, E von Mutius, N Pearce Article Affiliation: Centre for Public Health Research, Research School of Public Health, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand. Abstract: BACKGROUND: Farm exposures may protect against childhood asthma, hay fever and eczema. Whether farm exposures also confer protection in adult farmers remains unclear. Moreover, little is known about the role of timing of exposure. We assessed the effects of current and childhood farm exposures on asthma, hay fever and eczema in farmers and a rural nonfarming control population. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire survey in 2509 farming families (response rate 78%) and 1001 nonfarming families (response rate 67%), which included 4288 farmers and 1328 nonfarmers. RESULTS: Farmers were less likely to have asthma symptoms, hay fever and eczema; no significant differences were observed among dairy, sheep and beef, and horticulture farmers. A combination of current and childhood exposure was more strongly associated with shortness of breath (OR 0.50, CL 0.39-0.66), wheeze (OR 0.60, CL 0.49-0.73), asthma medication (OR 0.48, CL 0.37-0.63); and asthma ever (OR 0.56, CL 0.46-0.68) than current exposure alone (OR 0.63, CL 0.47-0.84; OR 0.80, CL 0.65-0.99; OR 0.68, CL 0.51-0.9; OR 0.69, CL 0.56-0.85 respectively) or childhood exposure alone (OR 0.97, CL0.65-1.44; OR 1.01, CL 0.75-1.34; OR 0.78, CL 0.51-1.19; OR 0.87, CL 0.63-1.19 respectively). Moreover, the combined number of years of farm exposure in childhood and adulthood showed a dose-dependent inverse association with symptom prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: Although both current and childhood farm exposures may play a role in the observed low prevalence of asthma symptoms in adult farmers, continued long-term exposure may be required to maintain optimal protection. Article Published Date : Oct 01, 2007

Horticultural therapy: the 'healing garden'and gardening in rehabilitation measures at Danderyd Hospital Rehabilitation Clinic, Sweden.

Abstract Title: Horticultural therapy: the 'healing garden'and gardening in rehabilitation measures at Danderyd Hospital Rehabilitation Clinic, Sweden. Abstract Source: J Appl Genet. 2007;48(3):189-98. PMID: 15513768 Abstract Author(s): Ingrid Söderback, Marianne Söderström, Elisabeth Schälander Article Affiliation: Department of Public Health and Caring Science, Uppsala University, Sweden. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Objectives were to review the literature on horticultural therapy and describe the Danderyd Hospital Horticultural Therapy Garden and its associated horticultural therapy programme. DESIGN: The literature review is based on the search words 'gardening', 'healing garden' and 'horticultural therapy'. The description is based on the second author's personal knowledge and popular-scientific articles initiated by her. The material has been integrated with acknowledged occupational therapy literature. SETTING: The setting was the Danderyd Hospital Rehabilitation Clinic, Sweden, Horticultural Therapy Garden. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-six patients with brain damage participated in group horticultural therapy. RESULTS: Horticulture therapy included the following forms: imagining nature, viewing nature, visiting a hospital healing garden and, most important, actual gardening. It was expected to influence healing, alleviate stress, increase well-being and promote participation in social life and re-employment for people with mental or physical illness. The Horticultural Therapy Garden was described regarding the design of the outdoor environment, adaptations of garden tools, cultivation methods and plant material. This therapy programme for mediating mental healing, recreation, social interaction, sensory stimulation, cognitive re-organization and training of sensory motor function is outlined and pre-vocational skills and the teaching of ergonomical body positions are assessed. CONCLUSION: This study gives a broad historic survey and a systematic description of horticultural therapy with emphasis on its use in rehabilitation following brain damage. Horticulture therapy mediates emotional, cognitive and/or sensory motor functional improvement, increased social participation, health, well-being and life satisfaction. However, the effectiveness, especially of the interacting and acting forms, needs investigation. Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2007
Therapeutic Actions Horticultural Therapy (Gardening)

NCBI pubmed

Reduced stress and improved physical functional ability in elderly with mental health problems following a horticultural therapy program.

Related Articles Reduced stress and improved physical functional ability in elderly with mental health problems following a horticultural therapy program. Complement Ther Med. 2018 Jun;38:19-23 Authors: Han AR, Park SA, Ahn BE Abstract OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the effects of a plant cultivation-based horticultural therapy program for elderly people with mental health problems. DESIGN: Pre- and post-test design with experimental and control groups. SETTING: Twenty-eight elderly Korean people with mental health problems participated from April to June 2017 at a farm located in Suwon, South Korea. INTERVENTIONS: The participants were randomly assigned to either the control (n = 14) or horticultural therapy group (n = 14); the latter participated in once-weekly sessions of a previously designed 10-session horticultural therapy program. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The pre-test occurred 1 week before starting the horticultural therapy program. The post-test was completed within 1 week after finishing the final program session. Cortisol levels were measured in saliva samples collected from both groups. The Senior Fitness Test was used to assess physical functional ability in both groups. RESULTS: In the horticultural therapy group, the cortisol levels decreased significantly from before to after the horticultural therapy program, and the post-test scores for six subtests of the Senior Fitness Test improved significantly. No significant improvements were seen in either measure in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the potential ability of horticultural therapy to improve the stress levels and physical functional abilities of elderly people with mental health problems. In future studies, it would be interesting to verify the long-term effects of this horticultural therapy program and to compare its effects with regard to sex, age, and various mental symptoms. PMID: 29857876 [PubMed - in process]