EEG dynamics and neural generators in implicit navigational image processing in adults with ADHD.
Neuroscience. 2018 Jan 14;:
Authors: Leroy A, Petit G, Zarka D, Cebolla AM, Palmero-Soler E, Strul J, Dan B, Verbanck P, Cheron G
In contrast to childhood ADHD that is characterized by inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity, most adults with ADHD predominantly exhibit inattention. We used a new oddball paradigm using implicit navigational images and analysed EEG dynamics with swLORETA inverse modelling of the evoked potential generators to study cortical processing in adults with ADHD and age-matched controls. In passive observation, we demonstrated that P350 amplitude, alpha-beta oscillation event-related synchronization (ERS) anticipation, and beta event-related desynchronization (ERD) were significantly smaller in ADHD. In the active condition, P100 duration was reduced and N140 amplitude increased for both deviant and frequent conditions in the ADHD. Alpha ERS and delta-theta ERS were reduced in the ADHD in the deviant condition. The left somatosensory area (BA2)and the right parietal lobe (BA31, BA40) contributed more to the P100 generators in the control than in the ADHD group, while the left frontal lobe (BA10) contributed more to the P100 generators in the ADHD. The left inferior parietal lobe (BA40) contributed more to the N140 generators in the control than the ADHD group while the right posterior cingulate (BA30) contributed more to the N140 generators in the ADHD. These findings reinforce the notion that earlier cortical stages of visual processing are compromised in adult ADHD by inducing the emergence of different even-related potentials generators and EEG dynamics in ADHD. Considering that classical approaches for ADHD diagnosis are based on qualitative clinical investigation possibly biased by subjectivity, EEG analysis is another objective tool that might contribute to diagnosis, future neurofeedback or brain stimulation therapies.
PMID: 29343456 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
The SyBil-AA real-time fMRI neurofeedback study: protocol of a single-blind randomized controlled trial in alcohol use disorder.
BMC Psychiatry. 2018 Jan 17;18(1):12
Authors: Gerchen MF, Kirsch M, Bahs N, Halli P, Gerhardt S, Schäfer A, Sommer WH, Kiefer F, Kirsch P
BACKGROUND: Alcohol Use Disorder is a highly prevalent mental disorder which puts a severe burden on individuals, families, and society. The treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder is challenging and novel and innovative treatment approaches are needed to expand treatment options. A promising neuroscience-based intervention method that allows targeting cortical as well as subcortical brain processes is real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback. However, the efficacy of this technique as an add-on treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder in a clinical setting is hitherto unclear and will be assessed in the Systems Biology of Alcohol Addiction (SyBil-AA) neurofeedback study.
METHODS: N = 100 patients with Alcohol Use Disorder will be randomized to 5 parallel groups in a single-blind fashion and receive real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback while they are presented pictures of alcoholic beverages. The groups will either downregulate the ventral striatum, upregulate the right inferior frontal gyrus, negatively modulate the connectivity between these regions, upregulate, or downregulate the auditory cortex as a control region. After receiving 3 sessions of neurofeedback training within a maximum of 2 weeks, participants will be followed up monthly for a period of 3 months and relapse rates will be assessed as the primary outcome measure.
DISCUSSION: The results of this study will provide insights into the efficacy of real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback training in the treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder as well as in the involved brain systems. This might help to identify predictors of successful neurofeedback treatment which could potentially be useful in developing personalized treatment approaches.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was retrospectively registered in the German Clinical Trials Register (trial identifier: DRKS00010253 ; WHO Universal Trial Number (UTN): U1111-1181-4218) on May 10th, 2016.
PMID: 29343230 [PubMed - in process]
Pathophysiological targets for non-pharmacological treatment of migraine.
Cephalalgia. 2016 Oct;36(12):1103-1111
Authors: Coppola G, Di Lorenzo C, Serrao M, Parisi V, Schoenen J, Pierelli F
Background Migraine is the most prevalent neurological disorder worldwide and ranked sixth among all diseases in years lived with disability. Overall preventive anti-migraine therapies have an effect in one patient out of two at the most, many of them being endowed with disabling adverse effects. No new disease-modifying drugs have come into clinical practice since the application to migraine of topiramate and botulinum toxin, the latter for its chronic form. There is thus clearly a need for more effective treatments that are devoid of, or have acceptable side effects. In recent years, scientific progress in migraine research has led to substantial changes in our understanding of the pathophysiology of migraine and paved the way for novel non-drug pathophysiological-targeted treatment strategies. Overview Several such non-drug therapies have been tested in migraine, such as oxidative phosphorylation enhancers, diets and non-invasive central or peripheral neurostimulation. All of them are promising for preventive migraine treatment and are quasi-devoid of side effects. Their advantage is that they can in theory be selected for individual patients according to their pathophysiological profile and they can (and probably should) be combined with the classical pharmacological armamentarium. Conclusion We will review here how knowledge of the functional anatomy and physiology of migraine mechanisms holds the key for more specific and effective non-pharmacological treatments.
PMID: 26637237 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]