Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Dietary Modification - Grain-Free-Grain-Reduced

Diabetes-specific HLA-DR-restricted proinflammatory T-cell response to wheat polypeptides in tissue transglutaminase antibody-negative patients with type 1 diabetes.

Abstract Title: Diabetes-specific HLA-DR-restricted proinflammatory T-cell response to wheat polypeptides in tissue transglutaminase antibody-negative patients with type 1 diabetes. Abstract Source: Diabetes. 2009 Aug;58(8):1789-96. Epub 2009 Apr 28. PMID: 19401421 Abstract Author(s): Majid Mojibian, Habiba Chakir, David E Lefebvre, Jennifer A Crookshank, Brigitte Sonier, Erin Keely, Fraser W Scott Abstract: OBJECTIVE: There is evidence of gut barrier and immune system dysfunction in some patients with type 1 diabetes, possibly linked with exposure to dietary wheat polypeptides (WP). However, questions arise regarding the frequency of abnormal immune responses to wheat and their nature, and it remains unclear whether such responses are diabetes specific. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In type 1 diabetic patients and healthy control subjects, the immune response of peripheral CD3(+) T-cells to WPs, ovalbumin, gliadin, alpha-gliadin 33-mer peptide, tetanus toxoid, and phytohemagglutinin was measured using a carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) proliferation assay. T-helper cell type 1 (Th1), Th2, and Th17 cytokines were analyzed in WP-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMNC) supernatants, and HLA was analyzed by PCR. RESULTS: Of 42 patients, 20 displayed increased CD3(+) T-cell proliferation to WPs and were classified as responders; proliferative responses to other dietary antigens were less pronounced. WP-stimulated PBMNCs from patients showed a mixed proinflammatory cytokine response with large amounts of IFN-gamma, IL-17A, and increased TNF. HLA-DQ2, the major celiac disease risk gene, was not significantly different. Nearly all responders carried the diabetes risk gene HLA-DR4. Anti-DR antibodies blocked the WP response and inhibited secretion of Th1 and Th17 cytokines. High amounts of WP-stimulated IL-6 were not blocked. CONCLUSIONS: T-cell reactivity to WPs was frequently present in type 1 diabetic patients and associated with HLA-DR4 but not HLA-DQ2. The presence of an HLA-DR-restricted Th1 and Th17 response to WPs in a subset of patients indicates a diabetes-related inflammatory state in the gut immune tissues associated with defective oral tolerance and possibly gut barrier dysfunction. Article Published Date : Aug 01, 2009

The influence of gluten: weaning recommendations for healthy children and children at risk for celiac disease.

Abstract Title: The influence of gluten: weaning recommendations for healthy children and children at risk for celiac disease. Abstract Source: Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Pediatr Program. 2007;60:139-51; discussion 151-5. PMID: 17664902 Abstract Author(s): Stefano Guandalini Abstract: In most developed countries, gluten is currently most commonly introduced between 4 and 6 months of age, in spite of little evidence to support this practice. As for infants at risk of developing food allergies, there is clear evidence that introducing solid foods before the end of the 3rd month is detrimental and should be avoided. A recent growing body of evidence however challenges the notion that solids (and among them, gluten-containing foods) should be introduced beyond the 6th month of life. Another important aspect of gluten introduction into the diet has to do with its possible role in causing type-1 diabetes (IDDM). Recently, a large epidemiological investigation in a cohort of children at risk for IDDM found that exposure to cereals (rice, wheat, oats, barley, rye) that occurred early (< or = 3 months) as well as late (> or = 7 months) resulted in a significantly higher risk of the appearance of islet cell autoimmunity compared to the introduction between 4 and 6 months. As for celiac disease, the protective role of breastfeeding can be considered ascertained, especially the protection offered by having gluten introduced while breastfeeding is continued. Evidence is emerging that early (< or = 3 months) and perhaps even late (7 months or after) first exposure to gluten may favor the onset of celiac disease in predisposed individuals. Additionally, large amounts of gluten at weaning are associated with an increased risk of developing celiac disease, as documented in studies from Scandinavian countries. In celiac children observed in our center, we could show that breastfeeding at the time of gluten introduction delays the appearance of celiac disease and makes it less likely that its presentation is predominantly gastrointestinal. Based on current evidence, it appears reasonable to recommend that gluten be introduced in small amounts in the diet between 4 and 6 months, while the infant is breastfed, and that breastfeeding is continued for at least a further 2-3 months. Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2007

Prophylactic nutritional modification of the incidence of diabetes in autoimmune non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice.

Abstract Title: Prophylactic nutritional modification of the incidence of diabetes in autoimmune non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Abstract Source: Br J Nutr. 1993 Mar;69(2):597-607. PMID: 8490012 Abstract Author(s): J Hoorfar, K Buschard, F Dagnaes-Hansen Abstract: Experiments in rodent models of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) suggest that destruction of pancreatic beta cells can be both initiated and inhibited by certain environmental factors such as dietary constituents. We studied nutritional impact of certain protein sources of natural-ingredient, non-purified (NP) rodent diet on diabetes incidence and insulitis severity in the spontaneous diabetic, non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse. Long-term ad lib. feeding of diets containing wheat flour (800 g/kg), and to a lesser extent soya-bean meal (400 g/kg), were associated with relatively high diabetes incidence (65 and 45% respectively), whereas a diet based on hydrolysed casein (HC; 200 g/kg) as the only source of protein significantly (compared with the wheat-flour diet) inhibited expression of diabetes (22%). Feeding a hypo-allergenic soya-bean-protein hydrolysate resulted in diabetes incidence and insulitis severity similar to that of the soya-bean-meal-fed group. This may indicate that protein hydrolysis per se may not be necessary for dietary modification of diabetes in the NOD mouse. The window of vulnerability to diabetogenic diets was found to be between weaning and about 70 d of age. In the diabetic mice insulitis was less frequent in the HC-fed group when compared with those fed NP (P = 0.04), soybean meal (P = 0.03), soya-bean-protein hydrolysate (P = 0.012) or wheat flour (P = 0.0002). In the non-diabetic mice the wheat-flour diet was associated with a high insulitis severity in comparison with the HC group (P = 0.004). Early avoidance of NP diet was associated with lower degree of insulitis in both diabetic (P = 0.00003) and non-diabetic mice (P = 0.001) when compared with the mice fed on the HC diet later in life. These findings are contributing to further clarification of diabetes-promoting dietary constituents, which may have some nutritional implications for IDDM-susceptible children. Article Published Date : Mar 01, 1993
Therapeutic Actions DIETARY MODIFICATION Grain-Free-Grain-Reduced

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Hormone replacement therapy, mammographic density, and breast cancer risk: a cohort study.

Related Articles Hormone replacement therapy, mammographic density, and breast cancer risk: a cohort study. Cancer Causes Control. 2018 Apr 18;: Authors: Azam S, Lange T, Huynh S, Aro AR, von Euler-Chelpin M, Vejborg I, Tjønneland A, Lynge E, Andersen ZJ Abstract PURPOSE: Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use increases breast cancer risk and mammographic density (MD). We examine whether MD mediates or modifies the association of HRT with the breast cancer. METHODS: For the 4,501 participants in the Danish diet, cancer and health cohort (1993-1997) who attended mammographic screening in Copenhagen (1993-2001), MD (mixed/dense or fatty) was assessed at the first screening after cohort entry. HRT use was assessed by questionnaire and breast cancer diagnoses until 2012 obtained from the Danish cancer registry. The associations of HRT with MD and with breast cancer were analyzed separately using Cox's regression. Mediation analyses were used to estimate proportion [with 95% confidence intervals (CI)] of an association between HRT and breast cancer mediated by MD. RESULTS: 2,444 (54.3%) women had mixed/dense breasts, 229 (5.4%) developed breast cancer, and 35.9% were current HRT users at enrollment. Compared to never users, current HRT use was statistically significantly associated with having mixed/dense breasts (relative risk and 95% CI 1.24; 1.14-1.35), and higher risk of breast cancer (hazard ratio 1.87; 1.40-2.48). Association between current HRT use and breast cancer risk was partially mediated by MD (percent mediated = 10%; 95% CI 4-22%). The current HRT use-related breast cancer risk was higher in women with mixed/dense (1.94; 1.37-3.87) than fatty (1.37; 0.80-2.35) breasts (p value for interaction = 0.15). CONCLUSIONS: MD partially mediates some of the association between HRT and breast cancer risk. The association between HRT and breast cancer seems to be stronger in women with dense breasts. PMID: 29671181 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, the Metabolic Syndrome, and Its Components in Adult Survivors of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantations.

Related Articles Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, the Metabolic Syndrome, and Its Components in Adult Survivors of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantations. Curr Diab Rep. 2018 Apr 18;18(6):32 Authors: Bielorai B, Pinhas-Hamiel O Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A growing number of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) survivors reach adulthood and face long-term health-related problems. We review risk factors and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of obesity-related comorbidities, including abdominal obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, impaired glucose metabolism, and type 2 diabetes in ALL and HSCT survivors. RECENT FINDINGS: Components of the MetS are already detected during the first year of ALL maintenance therapy and significantly worsen over time. The prevalence of MetS increases at a faster rate in this setting than in the general population. Factors found to be of the greatest potential risk to the development of the MetS are central obesity, increased BMI, irradiation therapy, older age, poor diet, and low level of physical activity. The early onset of MetS and its components among ALL and HSCT survivors calls for early and continuous screening to identify those at risk and to implement preventive measures. PMID: 29671081 [PubMed - in process]

Semen Cassiae Extract Improves Glucose Metabolism by Promoting GlUT4 Translocation in the Skeletal Muscle of Diabetic Rats.

Related Articles Semen Cassiae Extract Improves Glucose Metabolism by Promoting GlUT4 Translocation in the Skeletal Muscle of Diabetic Rats. Front Pharmacol. 2018;9:235 Authors: Zhang M, Li X, Liang H, Cai H, Hu X, Bian Y, Dong L, Ding L, Wang L, Yu B, Zhang Y, Zhang Y Abstract Diabetes mellitus is a clinical syndrome characterised by hyperglycaemia; its complications lead to disability and even death. Semen Cassiae is a traditional Chinese medicine, which has anti-hypertensive, anti-hyperlipidaemia, anti-oxidation, and anti-ageing properties. Our study was designed to evaluate the action of total anthraquinones of Semen Cassiae extract (SCE) on the improvement of glucose metabolism in diabetic rats and to elucidate the underlying mechanism. First, we evaluated the effect of SCE on normal rats. Next, we observed the effect of SCE using a rat model of diabetes, which was established by feeding rats with high-energy diet for 4 weeks and a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 30 mg/kg) 3 weeks after starting the high-energy diet. Rats in different SCE groups (administered 54, 108, and 324 mg/kg/day of SCE) and metformin group (162 mg/kg/day, positive control drug) were treated with the corresponding drugs 1 week before starting high-energy diet and treatment continued for 5 weeks; meanwhile, rats in the control group were administered the same volume of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose solution (vehicle solution). One week after STZ injection, fasting blood glucose (FBG), oral glucose tolerance (OGT), fasting serum insulin (FSI) and serum lipids were quantified. Finally, the expression of proteins in the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt-AS160-glucose transporter isoform 4 (GLUT4) signalling pathway was detected by western blotting. The data indicated that the levels of FBG and serum lipids were significantly lowered, and OGT and FSI were markedly increased in diabetic rats treated with SCE (108 mg/kg/day); however, SCE did not cause hypoglycaemia in normal rats. The molecular mechanisms were explored in the skeletal muscle. SCE markedly restored the decreased translocation of GLUT4 in diabetic rats. Moreover, the protein expressions of phosphorylated-AS160 (Thr642), phosphorylated-Akt (Ser473) and PI3K were significantly increased after SCE treatment in the skeletal muscle. These results indicate that SCE exerts an anti-hyperglycaemic effect by promoting GLUT4 translocation through the activation of the PI3K-Akt-AS160 signalling pathway. Our findings suggest that treatment with SCE, containing anthraquinones, could be an effective approach to enhance diabetes therapy. PMID: 29670524 [PubMed]

Twenty-four-hour systolic blood pressure variability and renal function decline in elderly male hypertensive patients with well-controlled blood pressure.

Related Articles Twenty-four-hour systolic blood pressure variability and renal function decline in elderly male hypertensive patients with well-controlled blood pressure. Clin Interv Aging. 2018;13:533-540 Authors: Wang X, Wang F, Chen M, Wang X, Zheng J, Qin A Abstract Purpose: Increased variability in blood pressure (BP) is known to be closely associated with the development, progression and severity of renal damage in patients with chronic kidney disease. However, little is known about the association of BP variability (BPV) with the decline of renal function in elderly hypertensive patients with well-controlled BP. We, therefore, aimed to investigate the association between BPV and glomerular filtration rate in hypertensive elderly (age >60 years) and very elderly (age >80 years) male patients with BP controlled within the normal range by antihypertensive therapy. Patients and methods: This study involved 484 hospitalized elderly male hypertensive patients with BP controlled within the normal range by antihypertensive therapy. BPV was defined as the SD from mean BP over a 24 h period. Renal function was estimated by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) which was calculated by the Chinese modified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Equation. Participants were divided into three groups according to their eGFR data. Multivariate linear regression was then used to analyze the correlation between eGFR and BPV. Results: The 24 h systolic BP (SBP) variability increased as eGFR decreased. There was no significant difference in 24 h SBP variability when compared between elderly and very elderly hypertensive patients. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that SBP variability demonstrated a negative linear relationship with eGFR (P<0.05) after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Conclusion: Among the parameters of 24 h ambulatory BP monitoring, 24 h SBP variability is the only independent risk factor for a decline in renal function in elderly and very elderly male hypertensive patients with well-controlled BP. PMID: 29670339 [PubMed - in process]

A combination of Lactobacillus mali APS1 and dieting improved the efficacy of obesity treatment via manipulating gut microbiome in mice.

Related Articles A combination of Lactobacillus mali APS1 and dieting improved the efficacy of obesity treatment via manipulating gut microbiome in mice. Sci Rep. 2018 Apr 18;8(1):6153 Authors: Chen YT, Yang NS, Lin YC, Ho ST, Li KY, Lin JS, Liu JR, Chen MJ Abstract The difficulty of long-term management has produced a high rate of failure for obesity patients. Therefore, improving the efficacy of current obesity treatment is a significant goal. We hypothesized that combining a probiotic Lactobacillus mali APS1 intervention with dieting could improve the efficacy of obesity and hepatic steatosis treatment compared to dieting alone. Mice were fed a high-fat diet for 6 weeks and then treated with: saline + normal diet and APS1 + normal diet (NDAPS1) for 3 weeks. NDAPS1 accelerated body weight loss and reduced caloric intake and fat accumulation. The fecal microbiome showed that accelerating weight loss by NDAPS1 resulted in restoring intestinal microbiota toward a pre-obese state, with alteration of specific changes in the obesity-associated bacteria. APS1 manipulated the gut microbiome's obesity-associated metabolites, followed by regulation of lipid metabolism, enhancement of energy expenditure and inhibition of appetite. The specific hepatic metabolites induced by the APS1-manipulated gut microbiome also contributed to the amelioration of hepatic steatosis. Our results highlighted a possible microbiome and metabolome that contributed to accelerating weight loss following treatment with a combination of APS1 and dieting and suggested that probiotics could serve as a potential therapy for modulating physiological function and downstream of the microbiota. PMID: 29670255 [PubMed - in process]

Squalene epoxidase drives NAFLD-induced hepatocellular carcinoma and is a pharmaceutical target.

Related Articles Squalene epoxidase drives NAFLD-induced hepatocellular carcinoma and is a pharmaceutical target. Sci Transl Med. 2018 Apr 18;10(437): Authors: Liu D, Wong CC, Fu L, Chen H, Zhao L, Li C, Zhou Y, Zhang Y, Xu W, Yang Y, Wu B, Cheng G, Lai PB, Wong N, Sung JJY, Yu J Abstract Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an emerging malignancy in the developed world; however, mechanisms that contribute to its formation are largely unknown, and targeted therapy is currently not available. Our RNA sequencing analysis of NAFLD-HCC samples revealed squalene epoxidase (SQLE) as the top outlier metabolic gene overexpressed in NAFLD-HCC patients. Hepatocyte-specific Sqle transgenic expression in mice accelerated the development of high-fat, high-cholesterol diet-induced HCC. SQLE exerts its oncogenic effect via its metabolites, cholesteryl ester and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+). Increased SQLE expression promotes the biosynthesis of cholesteryl ester, which induces NAFLD-HCC cell growth. SQLE increased the NADP+/NADPH (reduced form of NADP+) ratio, which triggered a cascade of events involving oxidative stress-induced DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) expression, DNMT3A-mediated epigenetic silencing of PTEN, and activation of AKT-mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin). In human NAFLD-HCC and HCC, SQLE is overexpressed and its expression is associated with poor patient outcomes. Terbinafine, a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved antifungal drug targeting SQLE, markedly inhibited SQLE-induced NAFLD-HCC cell growth in NAFLD-HCC and HCC cells and attenuated tumor development in xenograft models and in Sqle transgenic mice. Suppression of tumor growth by terbinafine is associated with decreased cholesteryl ester concentrations, restoration of PTEN expression, and inhibition of AKT-mTOR, consistent with blockade of SQLE function. Collectively, we established SQLE as an oncogene in NAFLD-HCC and propose that repurposing SQLE inhibitors may be a promising approach for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD-HCC. PMID: 29669855 [PubMed - in process]

Diet: the keystone of autism spectrum disorder?

Related Articles Diet: the keystone of autism spectrum disorder? Nutr Neurosci. 2018 Apr 19;:1-15 Authors: Peretti S, Mariano M, Mazzocchetti C, Mazza M, Pino MC, Verrotti Di Pianella A, Valenti M Abstract Children with autism are characterized by an impairment of social interaction and repetitive patterns of behaviour. Autism is a heterogeneous span of disorders with unknown aetiology. Research has grown significantly and has suggested that environmental risk factors acting during the prenatal period could influence the neurodevelopment of offspring. The literature suggests that the maternal diet during pregnancy has a fundamental role in the etiopathogenesis of autism. Indeed, a maternal diet that is high in some nutrients has been associated with an increase or reduction in the risk of develop Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The diet of ASD children is also a key factor for the worsening of ASD symptoms. Children with autism have food selectivity and limited diets due to smell, taste, or other characteristics of foods. This determines eating routines and food intake patterns, with consequent deficiency or excess of some aliments. Several studies have tried to show a possible relationship between nutritional status and autism. In this review we describe, emphasizing the limits and benefits, the main current empirical studies that have examined the role of maternal diet during gestation and diet of ASD children as modifiable risk factors at the base of development or worsening of symptoms of autism. PMID: 29669486 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Magnitude and associated factors of anemia among pregnant women in Dera District: a cross-sectional study in northwest Ethiopia.

Related Articles Magnitude and associated factors of anemia among pregnant women in Dera District: a cross-sectional study in northwest Ethiopia. BMC Res Notes. 2017 Aug 01;10(1):359 Authors: Derso T, Abera Z, Tariku A Abstract BACKGROUND: Anemia is associated with adverse health and socio-economic consequences among pregnant women. Particularly, severe anemia increases the risk of maternal mortality by 20%. However, literatures are scarce in the northwest Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the magnitude and associated factors of anemia among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Dera District, South Gondar Zone, northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Dera District health centers from June 27 to September 2, 2015. Capillary blood samples were taken from 348 pregnant women. The raw measured values of hemoglobin were obtained using the portable Hb301 instrument and adjusted for altitude. Besides, nutritional status of the women was assessed by the mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) taken on non-dominant upper limb, mostly of the left hand. Socio-demographic factors, obstetric history, environmental related factors and dietary intake were collected by interviewing the pregnant women. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to identify factors associated with anemia. Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) was computed to show the strength of association. In multivariable analysis, a P value of <0.05 was used to declare statistical significance. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of anemia among pregnant women was 30.5% [95% CI 21.0, 40.0]. The result of multivariable analysis revealed that the likelihood of anemia was higher among pregnant women living in rural areas [AOR = 3.03, 95% CI 1.17, 7.82], had no latrine [AOR = 4.75, 95% CI 1.15, 16.60], low monthly income: <Eth. Birr 1200 (US dollar 52.22) [AOR = 2.56, 95% CI 1.17, 5.60], five or above parity [AOR = 4.17; 95% CI 1.62, 10.69], MUAC < 23 cm [AOR = 4.97; 95% CI 2.61, 9.43] and did not prenatal take iron supplementation [AOR = 5.63; 95% 2.21, 14.32]. CONCLUSION: So far in the district, the magnitude of anemia existed as a moderate public health concern. Thus, improved socio-economic status, latrine and maternal iron supplementation coverage are essential to mitigate the high burden of anemia. In addition, nutritional counseling and education on the consumption of extra meals and iron-rich foods should be intensified. PMID: 28764745 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation attenuates microglial-induced inflammation by inhibiting the HMGB1/TLR4/NF-κB pathway following experimental traumatic brain injury.

Related Articles Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation attenuates microglial-induced inflammation by inhibiting the HMGB1/TLR4/NF-κB pathway following experimental traumatic brain injury. J Neuroinflammation. 2017 Jul 24;14(1):143 Authors: Chen X, Wu S, Chen C, Xie B, Fang Z, Hu W, Chen J, Fu H, He H Abstract BACKGROUND: Microglial activation and the subsequent inflammatory response in the central nervous system play important roles in secondary damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI). High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein, an important mediator in late inflammatory responses, interacts with transmembrane receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and toll-like receptors (TLRs) to activate downstream signaling pathways, such as the nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathway, leading to a cascade amplification of inflammatory responses, which are related to neuronal damage after TBI. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA) is a commonly used clinical immunonutrient, which has antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the effects of ω-3 PUFA on HMGB1 expression and HMGB1-mediated activation of the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway are not clear. METHODS: The Feeney DM TBI model was adopted to induce brain injury in rats. Modified neurological severity scores, brain water content, and Nissl staining were employed to determine the neuroprotective effects of ω-3 PUFA supplementation. Assessment of microglial activation in lesioned sites and protein markers for proinflammatory, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, interferon (IFN)-γ, and HMGB1 were used to evaluate neuroinflammatory responses and anti-inflammation effects of ω-3 PUFA supplementation. Immunofluorescent staining and western blot analysis were used to detect HMGB1 nuclear translocation, secretion, and HMGB1-mediated activation of the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway to evaluate the effects of ω-3 PUFA supplementation and gain further insight into the mechanisms underlying the development of the neuroinflammatory response after TBI. RESULTS: It was found that ω-3 PUFA supplementation inhibited TBI-induced microglial activation and expression of inflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IFN-γ), reduced brain edema, decreased neuronal apoptosis, and improved neurological functions after TBI. We further demonstrated that ω-3 PUFA supplementation inhibited HMGB1 nuclear translocation and secretion and decreased expression of HMGB1 in neurons and microglia in the lesioned areas. Moreover, ω-3 PUFA supplementation inhibited microglial activation and the subsequent inflammatory response by regulating HMGB1 and the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that microglial activation and the subsequent neuroinflammatory response as well as the related HMGB1/TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway play essential roles in secondary injury after TBI. Furthermore, ω-3 PUFA supplementation inhibited TBI-induced microglial activation and the subsequent inflammatory response by regulating HMGB1 nuclear translocation and secretion and also HMGB1-mediated activation of the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway, leading to neuroprotective effects. PMID: 28738820 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Feeding rosemary leaves powder ameliorates rooster age-related subfertility.

Related Articles Feeding rosemary leaves powder ameliorates rooster age-related subfertility. Theriogenology. 2017 Oct 01;101:35-43 Authors: Borghei-Rad SM, Zeinoaldini S, Zhandi M, Moravej H, Ansari M Abstract Having a high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids avian spermatozoa predispose to lipoperoxidation which results in fertility reduction. In the current study, rosemary leaves powder (RLP) was fed to senescent breeder roosters to improve their reproductive performance. Twenty four 70-week-old roosters were randomly divided into four groups and received following treatments including 0 (RLP-0), 2.5 (RLP-2.5), 5 (RLP-5) or 7.5 (RLP-7.5) g of RLP/kg of diet for eight consecutive weeks. Semen characteristics were evaluated weekly. Sperm penetration rate was assessed once, however, fertility, hatchability, embryonic mortality and hatchling quality evaluated twice (using eggs collected during 1st and 2nd weeks following AI) at the end of experiment. Excluding body weight and sperm abnormality percentage, other traits including semen concentration (RLP-2.5 = 3.57, RLP-5 = 4.21 and RLP-7.5 = 3.79; SEM = 0.12; p < 0.01), total sperm production (RLP-2.5 = 1.33, RLP-5 = 1.8 and RLP-7.5 = 1.47; SEM = 0.07; p < 0.01), forward motility (RLP-2.5 = 72.96, RLP-5 = 83.65 and RLP-7.5 = 78.84; SEM = 0.47; p < 0.01) and viability (RLP-2.5 = 82.93, RLP-5 = 88.69 and RLP-7.5 = 86.85; SEM = 0.45; p < 0.01) were improved in RLP treated groups compared to control group (3.08 ± 0.12, 1.05 ± 0.07, 68.39 ± 0.47 and 76 ± 0.45 for semen concentration, total sperm production, sperm forward motility and viability, respectively). In addition, semen volume and sperm plasma membrane functionality were higher in both RLP-5 (0.43 ± 0.01 and 66.66 ± 0.55) and RLP-7.5 (0.39 ± 0.01 and 65.52 ± 0.55) than control group (0.34 ± 0.01; p < 0.05 and 62.89 ± 0.55; p < 0.05). Supplementation of RLP significantly decreased semen Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. Moderate level of RLP (RLP-5) had significantly higher numbers of sperm penetration holes compared to other groups. Fertility rate of collected eggs from both RLP-5 (first week: 91.09 ± 1.27 (P < 0.01); second week: 88.73 ± 1.27 (p < 0.05)) and RLP-7.5 (first week: 93.11 ± 1.27 (P < 0.01); second week: 90.87 ± 1.27 (p < 0.05)) groups was higher than other groups at 1st and 2nd weeks of egg collection. Hatchability of eggs set at 2nd week (83.64 ± 3.54; p < 0.05) was higher and embryonic mortality at 1st week (1-6 day mortality: 5.03 ± 1.25 (p < 0.05); 18-21 day and pipped mortality: 8.55 ± 1.31 (p < 0.05)) was in RLP-0.5 group than other groups, respectively. To conclude, RLP supplementation could successfully attenuate age-related sub-fertility in senescent roosters. Further studies are needed to divulge the causal mechanisms involved. PMID: 28708514 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Dietary interventions for fetal growth restriction - therapeutic potential of dietary nitrate supplementation in pregnancy.

Related Articles Dietary interventions for fetal growth restriction - therapeutic potential of dietary nitrate supplementation in pregnancy. J Physiol. 2017 Aug 01;595(15):5095-5102 Authors: Cottrell E, Tropea T, Ormesher L, Greenwood S, Wareing M, Johnstone E, Myers J, Sibley C Abstract Fetal growth restriction (FGR) affects around 5% of pregnancies and is associated with significant short- and long-term adverse outcomes. A number of factors can increase the risk of FGR, one of which is poor maternal diet. In terms of pathology, both clinically and in many experimental models of FGR, impaired uteroplacental vascular function is implicated, leading to a reduction in the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the developing fetus. Whilst mechanisms underpinning impaired uteroplacental vascular function are not fully understood, interventions aimed at enhancing nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability remain a key area of interest in obstetric research. In addition to endogenous NO production from the amino acid l-arginine, via nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzymes, research in recent years has established that significant NO can be derived from dietary nitrate, via the 'alternative NO pathway'. Dietary nitrate, abundant in green leafy vegetables and beetroot, can increase NO bioactivity, conferring beneficial effects on cardiovascular function and blood flow. Given the beneficial effects of dietary nitrate supplementation to date in non-pregnant humans and animals, current investigations aim to assess the therapeutic potential of this approach in pregnancy to enhance NO bioactivity, improve uteroplacental vascular function and increase fetal growth. PMID: 28090634 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

No benefit of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane blocks over wound infiltration with local anaesthetic in elective laparoscopic colonic surgery: results of a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

Related Articles No benefit of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane blocks over wound infiltration with local anaesthetic in elective laparoscopic colonic surgery: results of a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Colorectal Dis. 2017 Jul;19(7):681-689 Authors: Rashid A, Gorissen KJ, Ris F, Gosselink MP, Shorthouse JR, Smith AD, Pandit JJ, Lindsey I, Crabtree NA Abstract AIM: Advances in laparoscopic techniques combined with enhanced recovery pathways have led to faster recuperation and discharge after colorectal surgery. Peripheral nerve blockade using transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks reduce opioid requirements and provide better analgesia for laparoscopic colectomies than do inactive controls. This double-blind randomized study was performed to compare TAP blocks using bupivacaine with standardized wound infiltration with local anaesthetic (LA). METHOD: Seventy-one patients were randomized to receive either TAP block or wound infiltration. The TAP blocks were performed by experienced anaesthetists who used ultrasound guidance to deliver 40 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine post-induction into the transverse abdominis plane. In the control group, 40 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine was injected around the trocar and the extraction site by the surgeon. Both groups received patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with intravenous morphine. Patients and nursing staff assessed pain scores 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after surgery. The primary outcome was overall morphine use in the first 48 h. RESULTS: Of the 71 patients, 20 underwent a right hemicolectomy and 51 a high anterior resection. The modified intention-to-treat analysis showed no significant differences in overall morphine use [47.3 (36.2-58.5) mg vs 46.7 (36.2-57.3) mg; mean (95% CI), P = 0.8663] in the first 48 h. Pain scores were similar at 6, 12, 24 and 48 h. No differences were found regarding time to mobilization, resumption of diet and length of hospital stay. CONCLUSION: In elective laparoscopic colectomies, standardized wound infiltration with LA has the same analgesic effect as TAP blocks post-induction using bupivacaine at 48 h. PMID: 27943522 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Renal stone clinic survey: calcium stone formers' self-declared understanding of and adherence to physician's recommendations.

Related Articles Renal stone clinic survey: calcium stone formers' self-declared understanding of and adherence to physician's recommendations. Urolithiasis. 2017 Aug;45(4):363-370 Authors: Hess B Abstract Nothing is known about how well stone formers understand physician's explanations of stone formation, and a few data are available on adherence to provided recommendations. In this study, two groups of recurrent calcium stone formers (RCSFs) were compared. Group 1: 153 consecutive RCSF (118 men, 35 women) referred 1/2011-6/2014. At least 3 months after a 60-75 min consultation explaining metabolic evaluation and therapeutic measures, RCSF received a questionnaire by mail, regarding understanding of stone formation and adherence to therapeutic recommendations (diet, lifestyle, drug treatment). Response rate was 62 %. Group 2 (control): 81 consecutive RCSFs referred 7/2014-3/2016 (60 men, 21 women) were asked to answer the same questionnaire in the stone center while waiting for their follow-up consultation 3 months after starting prevention; response rate was 100 %. Alkali citrate was prescribed in 45 %. Answer sheets were analyzed anonymously, and frequencies of answers were compared by Chi-square test. RESULTS: 67 % (group 1) and 62 % (group 2) indicated >80 % understanding of the given information (NS). Over 80 % adherence to recommendations occurred in 26 and 30 % (NS). Most frequent changes in dietary/lifestyle habits were increases in calcium (93 vs. 89 %) and fluid intakes (81 vs. 78 %); lowering psychosocial stress (23 vs. 24 %) was least popular. Adherence to 100 % on 6-7 days/week was significantly more frequent for medication than for dietary/lifestyle interventions, both in group 1 (84 vs. 24 %, p < 0.001) and group 2 (91 vs. 28 %, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: (1) results do not differ whether RCSFs are voluntarily participating by mail or asked to answer questionnaires in the stone clinic; (2) pathophysiologic explanations of stone disease are understood to >80 % by 2/3 of RCSFs; (3) after 3 months, perfect adherence to recommended treatment is more frequent on alkali citrate than on dietary/lifestyle measures; and (4) increasing calcium and fluid intake are the most popular dietary measures. PMID: 27573100 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

An in vivo invertebrate evaluation system for identifying substances that suppress sucrose-induced postprandial hyperglycemia.

Related Articles An in vivo invertebrate evaluation system for identifying substances that suppress sucrose-induced postprandial hyperglycemia. Sci Rep. 2016 05 19;6:26354 Authors: Matsumoto Y, Ishii M, Sekimizu K Abstract Sucrose is a major sweetener added to various foods and beverages. Excessive intake of sucrose leads to increases in blood glucose levels, which can result in the development and exacerbation of lifestyle-related diseases such as obesity and diabetes. In this study, we established an in vivo evaluation system using silkworms to explore substances that suppress the increase in blood glucose levels caused by dietary intake of sucrose. Silkworm hemolymph glucose levels rapidly increased after intake of a sucrose-containing diet. Addition of acarbose or voglibose, α-glycosidase inhibitors clinically used for diabetic patients, suppressed the dietary sucrose-induced increase in the silkworm hemolymph glucose levels. Screening performed using the sucrose-induced postprandial hyperglycemic silkworm model allowed us to identify some lactic acid bacteria that inhibit the increase in silkworm hemolymph glucose levels caused by dietary intake of sucrose. The inhibitory effects of the Lactococcus lactis #Ll-1 bacterial strain were significantly greater than those of different strains of lactic acid bacteria. No effect of the Lactococcus lactis #Ll-1 strain was observed in silkworms fed a glucose diet. These results suggest that the sucrose diet-induced postprandial hyperglycemic silkworm is a useful model for evaluating chemicals and lactic acid bacteria that suppress increases in blood glucose levels. PMID: 27194587 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Effects of intrauterine growth retardation and Bacillus subtilis PB6 supplementation on growth performance, intestinal development and immune function of piglets during the suckling period.

Related Articles Effects of intrauterine growth retardation and Bacillus subtilis PB6 supplementation on growth performance, intestinal development and immune function of piglets during the suckling period. Eur J Nutr. 2017 Jun;56(4):1753-1765 Authors: Hu L, Peng X, Chen H, Yan C, Liu Y, Xu Q, Fang Z, Lin Y, Xu S, Feng B, Li J, Wu, Che L Abstract OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and Bacillus subtilis PB6 supplementation in formula milk (FORM) on growth performance, intestinal development and immune function of neonates using a porcine model. METHODS: Fourteen pairs of normal birth weight and IUGR piglets (7 days old) were randomly assigned to receive FORM or FORM supplemented with B. subtilis PB6 (FORM-BsPB6) for a period of 21 days. Blood samples, intestinal tissues and digesta were collected at necropsy and analysed for morphology, digestive enzyme activities, immune cell abundance, expression of genes associated with innate immunity and barrier function and microbial populations. RESULTS: Regardless of diet, IUGR significantly decreased average daily dry matter intake and average daily weight gain (P < 0.05). Moreover, IUGR significantly decreased plasma concentrations of immunoglobulin A, interleukin 1β, count and percentage of blood lymphocytes (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, IUGR markedly decreased villous height and maltase activity, as well as mRNA abundance of Toll-like receptor 9 and Toll-interacting protein in the ileum (P < 0.05). Regardless of body weight, FORM-BsPB6 markedly decreased the feed conversion ratio (P < 0.05), due to better intestinal development, as indicated by increased villous height (P < 0.05), activities of maltase and sucrase in the intestine (P < 0.10). Moreover, both mRNA and protein abundances of zonula occludens-1 and claudin-1 in the ileum as well as the copy number of Bacillus in colonic digesta were increased (P < 0.05) in piglets fed FORM-BsPB6 relative to FORM. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that IUGR delayed growth, intestinal development and immune function of piglets, while FORM-BsPB6 improved digestive capability and intestinal barrier function. PMID: 27188336 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Dietary fat may modulate adipose tissue homeostasis through the processes of autophagy and apoptosis.

Related Articles Dietary fat may modulate adipose tissue homeostasis through the processes of autophagy and apoptosis. Eur J Nutr. 2017 Jun;56(4):1621-1628 Authors: Camargo A, Rangel-Zúñiga OA, Alcalá-Díaz J, Gomez-Delgado F, Delgado-Lista J, García-Carpintero S, Marín C, Almadén Y, Yubero-Serrano EM, López-Moreno J, Tinahones FJ, Pérez-Martínez P, Roche HM, López-Miranda J Abstract PURPOSE: Obesity increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cancer development. Autophagy and apoptosis are critical processes for development and homeostasis in multicellular organisms and have been linked to a variety of disorders. We aimed to investigate whether the quantity and quality of dietary fat can influence these processes in the adipose tissue of obese people. METHODS: A randomized, controlled trial within the LIPGENE study assigned 39 obese people with metabolic syndrome to 1 of 4 diets: (a) a high-saturated fatty acid diet, (b) a high-monounsaturated fatty acid (HMUFA) diet, and (c, d) two low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate diets supplemented with long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LFHCC n-3) or placebo (LFHCC), for 12 weeks each. RESULTS: We found an increase in the expression of autophagy-related BECN1 and ATG7 genes after the long-term consumption of the HMUFA diet (p = 0.001 and p = 0.004, respectively) and an increase in the expression of the apoptosis-related CASP3 gene after the long-term consumption of the LFHCC and LFHCC n-3 diets (p = 0.001 and p = 0.029, respectively). CASP3 and CASP7 gene expression changes correlated with HOMA index. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the processes of autophagy and apoptosis in adipose tissue may be modified by diet and that the consumption of a diet rich in monounsaturated fat may contribute to adipose tissue homeostasis by increasing autophagy. They also reinforce the notion that apoptosis in adipose tissue is linked to insulin resistance. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00429195. PMID: 27029919 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Effect of multi-strain probiotics (multi-strain microbial cell preparation) on glycemic control and other diabetes-related outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial.

Related Articles Effect of multi-strain probiotics (multi-strain microbial cell preparation) on glycemic control and other diabetes-related outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. Eur J Nutr. 2017 Jun;56(4):1535-1550 Authors: Firouzi S, Majid HA, Ismail A, Kamaruddin NA, Barakatun-Nisak MY Abstract AIM: Evidence of a possible connection between gut microbiota and several physiological processes linked to type 2 diabetes is increasing. However, the effect of multi-strain probiotics in people with type 2 diabetes remains unclear. This study investigated the effect of multi-strain microbial cell preparation-also refers to multi-strain probiotics-on glycemic control and other diabetes-related outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, controlled clinical trial. SETTING: Diabetes clinic of a teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 136 participants with type 2 diabetes, aged 30-70 years, were recruited and randomly assigned to receive either probiotics (n = 68) or placebo (n = 68) for 12 weeks. OUTCOMES: Primary outcomes were glycemic control-related parameters, and secondary outcomes were anthropomorphic variables, lipid profile, blood pressure and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. The Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium quantities were measured before and after intervention as an indicator of successful passage of the supplement through gastrointestinal tract. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis was performed on all participants, while per-protocol (PP) analysis was performed on those participants who had successfully completed the trial with good compliance rate. RESULTS: With respect to primary outcomes, glycated hemoglobin decreased by 0.14 % in the probiotics and increased by 0.02 % in the placebo group in PP analysis (p < 0.05, small effect size of 0.050), while these changes were not significant in ITT analysis. Fasting insulin increased by 1.8 µU/mL in placebo group and decreased by 2.9 µU/mL in probiotics group in PP analysis. These changes were significant between groups at both analyses (p < 0.05, medium effect size of 0.062 in PP analysis and small effect size of 0.033 in ITT analysis). Secondary outcomes did not change significantly. Probiotics successfully passed through the gastrointestinal tract. CONCLUSION: Probiotics modestly improved HbA1c and fasting insulin in people with type 2 diabetes. PMID: 26988693 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Beneficial effects of a red wine polyphenol extract on high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats.

Related Articles Beneficial effects of a red wine polyphenol extract on high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats. Eur J Nutr. 2017 Jun;56(4):1467-1475 Authors: Auberval N, Dal S, Maillard E, Bietiger W, Peronet C, Pinget M, Schini-Kerth V, Sigrist S Abstract PURPOSE: Individuals with metabolic syndrome (MS) show several metabolic abnormalities including insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, and oxidative stress (OS). Diet is one of the factors influencing the development of MS, and current nutritional advice emphasises the benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption. Here, we assessed the effects of naturally occurring antioxidants, red wine polyphenols (RWPs), on MS and OS. METHODS: Wistar rats (n = 20) weighing 200-220 g received a high-fat diet (HFD) for 2 months before they were divided into two groups that received either HFD only or HFD plus 50 mg/kg RWPs in their drinking water for an additional 2 months. A control group (n = 10) received a normal diet (ND) for 4 months. RESULTS: Rats receiving HFD increased body weight over 20 % throughout the duration of the study. They also showed increased blood levels of C-peptide, glucose, lipid peroxides, and oxidised proteins. In addition, the HFD increased OS in hepatic, pancreatic, and vascular tissues, as well as induced pancreatic islet cell hyperplasia and hepatic steatosis. Addition of RWPs to the HFD attenuated these effects on plasma and tissue OS and on islet cell hyperplasia. However, RWPs had no effect on blood glucose levels or hepatic steatosis. CONCLUSIONS: RWPs showed an antioxidant mechanism of action against MS. This result will inform future animal studies exploring the metabolic effects of RWPs in more detail. In addition, these findings support the use of antioxidants as adjunctive nutritional treatments for patients with diabetes. PMID: 26913853 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]