Therapeutic Actions The Presence of Plants

NCBI pubmed

Spatial patterns of pharmaceuticals and wastewater tracers in the Hudson River Estuary.

Spatial patterns of pharmaceuticals and wastewater tracers in the Hudson River Estuary. Water Res. 2017 Dec 22;137:335-343 Authors: Cantwell MG, Katz DR, Sullivan JC, Shapley D, Lipscomb J, Epstein J, Juhl AR, Knudson C, O'Mullan GD Abstract The widespread use of pharmaceuticals by human populations results in their sustained discharge to surface waters via wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, 16 highly prescribed pharmaceuticals were quantified along a 250 km transect of the Hudson River Estuary and New York Harbor to describe their sources and spatial patterns. Sampling was conducted over two dry weather periods in May and July 2016, at 72 sites which included mid-channel and nearshore sites, as well as locations influenced by tributaries and WWTP outfalls. The detection frequency of the study pharmaceuticals was almost identical between the May and July sampling periods at 55% and 52%, respectively. Six pharmaceuticals were measurable at 92% or more of the sites during both sampling periods, illustrating their ubiquitous presence throughout the study area. Individual pharmaceutical concentrations were highly variable spatially, ranging from non-detect to 3810 ng/L during the study. Major factors controlling concentrations were proximity and magnitude of WWTP discharges, inputs from tributaries and tidal mixing. Two compounds, sucralose and caffeine, were evaluated as tracers to identify wastewater sources and assess pharmaceutical behavior. Sucralose was useful in identifying wastewater inputs to the river and concentrations showed excellent correlations with numerous pharmaceuticals in the study. Caffeine-sucralose ratios showed potential in identifying discharges of untreated wastewater occurring during a combined sewage overflow event. Many of the study pharmaceuticals were present throughout the Hudson River Estuary as a consequence of sustained wastewater discharge. Whereas some concentrations were above published effects levels, a more complete risk assessment is needed to understand the potential for ecological impacts due to pharmaceuticals in the Hudson River Estuary. PMID: 29571111 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Evaluation of the potential exposure of butterflies to genetically modified maize pollen in protected areas in Italy.

Evaluation of the potential exposure of butterflies to genetically modified maize pollen in protected areas in Italy. Insect Sci. 2018 Mar 23;: Authors: Arpaia S, Baldacchino F, Bosi S, Burgio G, Errico S, Magarelli RA, Masetti A, Santorsola S Abstract Environmental impacts of genetically modified crops are mandatorily assessed during their pre-market phase. One of the areas of concern is the possible impact on non-target organisms. Crops expressing Cry toxins might affect Lepidoptera larvae living outside cultivated fields, through pollen deposition on wild plants which constitute their food source. While pollen toxicity varies among different events, possible exposure of non-target species depends on the agro-environmental conditions. This study was conducted in two protected areas in Italy, characterized by different climatic conditions, where many Lepidoptera species thrive in proximity to maize cultivations. To estimate the possible exposure in absence of the actual stressor (e.g. Cry1-expressing maize plants), we conducted a two-year field survey of butterflies and weeds. Indicator species were selected - Aglais (Inachis) io in the Northern site and Vanessa cardui in the Southern site - and their phenology was investigated. Pollen dispersal from maize fields was measured by collection in Petri dishes. Duration and frequency of exposure was defined by the overlap between pollen emission and presence of larvae on host plants. Different risk scenarios are expected in the two regions: highest exposure is foreseen for A. io in the Northern site, while minimal exposure is estimated for V. cardui in the Southern site. In the latter case, locally grown maize cultivars flower in mid-summer in coincidence with an aestivation period for several butterfly species due to hot and dry conditions. Moreover, host plants of V. cardui are at the end of their life cycle thus limiting food availability. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 29569843 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Vascular plant-mediated controls on atmospheric carbon assimilation and peat carbon decomposition under climate change.

Vascular plant-mediated controls on atmospheric carbon assimilation and peat carbon decomposition under climate change. Glob Chang Biol. 2018 Mar 23;: Authors: Gavazov K, Albrecht R, Buttler A, Dorrepaal E, Garnett MH, Gogo S, Hagedorn F, Mills RTE, Robroek BJM, Bragazza L Abstract Climate change can alter peatland plant community composition by promoting the growth of vascular plants. How such vegetation change affects peatland carbon dynamics remains, however, unclear. In order to assess the effect of vegetation change on carbon uptake and release, we performed a vascular-plant removal experiment in two Sphagnum-dominated peatlands that represent contrasting stages of natural vegetation succession along a climatic gradient. Periodic measurements of net ecosystem CO2 exchange revealed that vascular plants play a crucial role in assuring the potential for net carbon uptake, particularly with a warmer climate. The presence of vascular plants, however, also increased ecosystem respiration, and by using the seasonal variation of respired CO2 radiocarbon (bomb-14 C) signature we demonstrate an enhanced heterotrophic decomposition of peat carbon due to rhizosphere priming. The observed rhizosphere priming of peat carbon decomposition was matched by more advanced humification of dissolved organic matter, which remained apparent beyond the plant growing season. Our results underline the relevance of rhizosphere priming in peatlands, especially when assessing the future carbon sink function of peatlands undergoing a shift in vegetation community composition in association with climate change. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 29569798 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Preliminary evidence of nanoparticle occurrence in water from different regions of Delhi (India).

Preliminary evidence of nanoparticle occurrence in water from different regions of Delhi (India). Environ Monit Assess. 2018 Mar 22;190(4):240 Authors: Baranidharan S, Kumar A Abstract The objective of this study was to obtain preliminary evidence of metal-based nanoparticle (NP) occurrence in Delhi (India). Six sampling locations (inlets and outlets of two different municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), groundwater, and river water) were collected in three independent sampling events. Microscopic analysis (TEM) found majority (40%) of the particles ranged between 150 and 200 nm followed by particles of size 100-150 nm (22%) at the inlet of WWTP, while at outlet, 90% of the particles were < 100 nm. Compared with the outlet of the WWTPs, particles at the inlet were found to be greater than 40%. Intensity-based particle size distribution (PSD) revealed particle size at influent in the range of 210 nm, while at effluent, particle size for both WWTPs ranged < 100 nm. Particles of size between 100 and 200 nm were found to get removed from both the treatment plants and thus making it evident that NP gets settled or adsorbed in sludge. Spectral analysis (EDX) further confirmed the presence of metals such as Al, As, Ag, Mn, Fe, Ti, and Zn at different weight percentages. Overall, findings of this study confirmed the presence of metal-based engineered NPs (ENPs) from anthropogenic sources and it cannot also be ruled out the possible formation of NPs within the wastewater from natural minerals. Moreover, to solve definitive clues for ascertaining the sources of NPs in complex samples, more sophisticated research techniques, such as inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in combination with field flow fractionation, single-particle ICP-MS, and radio-labeling in combination or in single should be considered. PMID: 29568994 [PubMed - in process]

Current state of knowledge on Wolbachia infection among Coleoptera: a systematic review.

Current state of knowledge on Wolbachia infection among Coleoptera: a systematic review. PeerJ. 2018;6:e4471 Authors: Kajtoch Ł, Kotásková N Abstract Background: Despite great progress in studies on Wolbachia infection in insects, the knowledge about its relations with beetle species, populations and individuals, and the effects of bacteria on these hosts, is still unsatisfactory. In this review we summarize the current state of knowledge about Wolbachia occurrence and interactions with Coleopteran hosts. Methods: An intensive search of the available literature resulted in the selection of 86 publications that describe the relevant details about Wolbachia presence among beetles. These publications were then examined with respect to the distribution and taxonomy of infected hosts and diversity of Wolbachia found in beetles. Sequences of Wolbachia genes (16S rDNA, ftsZ) were used for the phylogenetic analyses. Results: The collected publications revealed that Wolbachia has been confirmed in 204 beetle species and that the estimated average prevalence of this bacteria across beetle species is 38.3% and varies greatly across families and genera (0-88% infected members) and is much lower (c. 13%) in geographic studies. The majority of the examined and infected beetles were from Europe and East Asia. The most intensively studied have been two groups of herbivorous beetles: Curculionidae and Chrysomelidae. Coleoptera harbor Wolbachia belonging to three supergroups: F found in only three species, and A and B found in similar numbers of beetles (including some doubly infected); however the latter two were most prevalent in different families. A total of 59% of species with precise data were found to be totally infected. Single infections were found in 69% of species and others were doubly- or multiply-infected. Wolbachia caused numerous effects on its beetle hosts, including selective sweep with host mtDNA (found in 3% of species), cytoplasmic incompatibility (detected in c. 6% of beetles) and other effects related to reproduction or development (like male-killing, possible parthenogenesis or haplodiploidy induction, and egg development). Phylogenetic reconstructions for Wolbachia genes rejected cospeciation between these bacteria and Coleoptera, with minor exceptions found in some Hydraenidae, Curculionidae and Chrysomelidae. In contrast, horizontal transmission of bacteria has been suspected or proven in numerous cases (e.g., among beetles sharing habitats and/or host plants). Discussion: The present knowledge about Wolbachia infection across beetle species and populations is very uneven. Even the basic data about infection status in species and frequency of infected species across genera and families is very superficial, as only c. 0.15% of all beetle species have been tested so far. Future studies on Wolbachia diversity in Coleoptera should still be based on the Multi-locus Sequence Typing system, and next-generation sequencing technologies will be important for uncovering Wolbachia relations with host evolution and ecology, as well as with other, co-occurring endosymbiotic bacteria. PMID: 29568706 [PubMed]

Tissue-based metabolite profiling and qualitative comparison of two species of Achyranthes roots by use of UHPLC-QTOF MS and laser micro-dissection.

Tissue-based metabolite profiling and qualitative comparison of two species of Achyranthes roots by use of UHPLC-QTOF MS and laser micro-dissection. J Pharm Anal. 2018 Feb;8(1):10-19 Authors: Jaiswal Y, Liang Z, Ho A, Chen H, Williams L, Zhao Z Abstract Achyranthes bidentata and Achyranthes aspera are saponin and steroid rich medicinal plants, used extensively for therapeutic treatments in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda. A. bidentata is reported to be one of the rare and extensively exploited medicinal plant species that face the issue of being endangered. Finding qualitative substitute with identical phyto-constituents contributing to similar composition and pharmacological benefits will help in reducing the burden of exploitation of the natural habitats of such plants. In the present study, a comparative metabolite analysis of the whole drug and specific tissues isolated by laser micro-dissection (LMD) was carried out for both the selected species, by use of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF MS). The results of the study indicate that the cortex and the medullary ray tissues are rich in their content of steroidal and saponin constituents such as (25S)-inokosterone-20,22-acetonide, ginsenoside Ro, bidentatoside II and achyranthoside B. Metabolite profiling of the whole tissues of both the species indicates presence of identical constituents. Thus, it is inferred that A. bidentata and A. aspera can be used as qualitative substitutes for each other. PMID: 29568663 [PubMed]

Plant Glycine-Rich Proteins in Stress Response: An Emerging, Still Prospective Story.

Plant Glycine-Rich Proteins in Stress Response: An Emerging, Still Prospective Story. Front Plant Sci. 2018;9:302 Authors: Czolpinska M, Rurek M Abstract Seed plants are sessile organisms that have developed a plethora of strategies for sensing, avoiding, and responding to stress. Several proteins, including the glycine-rich protein (GRP) superfamily, are involved in cellular stress responses and signaling. GRPs are characterized by high glycine content and the presence of conserved segments including glycine-containing structural motifs composed of repetitive amino acid residues. The general structure of this superfamily facilitates division of GRPs into five main subclasses. Although the participation of GRPs in plant stress response has been indicated in numerous model and non-model plant species, relatively little is known about the key physiological processes and molecular mechanisms in which those proteins are engaged. Class I, II, and IV members are known to be involved in hormone signaling, stress acclimation, and floral development, and are crucial for regulation of plant cells growth. GRPs of class IV [RNA-binding proteins (RBPs)] are involved in alternative splicing or regulation of transcription and stomatal movement, seed, pollen, and stamen development; their accumulation is regulated by the circadian clock. Owing to the fact that the overexpression of GRPs can confer tolerance to stress (e.g., some are involved in cold acclimation and may improve growth at low temperatures), these proteins could play a promising role in agriculture through plant genetic engineering. Consequently, isolation, cloning, characterization, and functional validation of novel GRPs expressed in response to the diverse stress conditions are expected to be growing areas of research in the coming years. According to our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive review on participation of plant GRPs in the response to diverse stress stimuli. PMID: 29568308 [PubMed]

Mapping the Flowering of an Invasive Plant Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Is There Potential for Biocontrol Monitoring?

Mapping the Flowering of an Invasive Plant Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Is There Potential for Biocontrol Monitoring? Front Plant Sci. 2018;9:293 Authors: de Sá NC, Castro P, Carvalho S, Marchante E, López-Núñez FA, Marchante H Abstract Invasion by alien species is a worldwide phenomenon with negative consequences at both natural and production areas. Acacia longifolia is an invasive shrub/small tree well known for its negative ecological impacts in several places around the world. The recent introduction of a biocontrol agent (Trichilogaster acaciaelongifoliae), an Australian bud-galling wasp which decreases flowering of A. longifolia, in Portugal, demands the development of a cost-efficient method to monitor its establishment. We tested how unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) can be used to map A. longifolia flowering. Our core assumption is as the population of the biocontrol agent increases, its impacts on the reduction of A. longifolia flowering will be increasingly visible. Additionally, we tested if there is a simple linear correlation between the number of flowers of A. longifolia counted in field and the area covered by flowers in the UAV imagery. UAV imagery was acquired over seven coastal areas including frontal dunes, interior sand dunes and pine forests considering two phenological stages: peak and off-peak flowering season. The number of flowers of A. longifolia was counted, in a minimum of 60 1 m2 quadrats per study area. For each study area, flower presence/absence maps were obtained using supervised Random Forest. The correlation between the number of flowers and the area covered by flowering plants could then be tested. The flowering of A. longifolia was mapped using UAV mounted with RGB and CIR Cannon IXUS/ELPH cameras (Overall Accuracy > 0.96; Cohen's Kappa > 0.85) varying according to habitat type and flowering season. The correlation between the number of flowers counted and the area covered by flowering was weak (r2 between 0.0134 and 0.156). This is probably explained, at least partially, by the high variability of A. longifolia in what regards flowering morphology and distribution. The very high accuracy of our approach to map A. longifolia flowering proved to be cost efficient and replicable, showing great potential for detecting the future decrease in flowering promoted by the biocontrol agent. The attempt to provide a low-cost method to estimate A. longifolia flower productivity using UAV failed, but it provided valuable insights on the future steps. PMID: 29568305 [PubMed]

Identification of Antidiabetic Compounds from Polyphenolic-rich Fractions of Bulbine abyssinica A. Rich Leaves.

Identification of Antidiabetic Compounds from Polyphenolic-rich Fractions of Bulbine abyssinica A. Rich Leaves. Pharmacognosy Res. 2018 Jan-Mar;10(1):72-80 Authors: Odeyemi SW, Afolayan AJ Abstract Background: Bulbine abyssinica has been reported to possess a variety of pharmacological activities traditionally. Previous work suggested its antidiabetic properties, but information on the antidiabetic compounds is still lacking. Objective: The present research exertion was aimed to isolate and identify biologically active polyphenols from B. abyssinica leaves and to evaluate their efficacy on carbohydrate digesting enzymes. Materials and Methods: Fractionation of the polyphenolic contents from the methanolic extract of B. abyssinica leaves was executed by the silica gel column chromatography to yield different fractions. The antioxidant activities of these fractions were carried out against 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals, and ferric ion-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). In vitro antidiabetic experimentation was performed by evaluating the α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory capacity. The isolated polyphenols were then identified using liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy (LC/MS). Results: Out of the eight polyphenolic fractions (BAL 1-8), BAL-4 has the highest inhibitory activity against ABTS radicals whereas BAL-6 showed potent ferric ion-reducing capacity. BAL-5 was the most effective fraction with antidiabetic activity with IC50of 140.0 and 68.58 ± 3.2 μg/ml for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities, respectively. All the fractions competitively inhibited α-amylase, BAL-5 and BAL-6 also inhibited α-glucosidase competitively, while BAL-4 and BAL-1 exhibited noncompetitive and near competitive inhibitions against α-glucosidase, respectively. The LC/MS analysis revealed the presence of carvone in all the fractions. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates the antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of the isolated polyphenols from B. abyssinica. SUMMARY: Polyphenols were successfully isolated and identified from Bulbine abyssinica leavesThe isolated polyphenols are biologically active with high antioxidant as well as inhibitor of carbohydrate-digesting enzymesB. abyssinica can be a good source of amylase and glucosidase inhibitorsB. abyssinica can be used as complementary or alternative therapeutic agents especially for the treatment of diabetesCarvone, quercetin, and psoralen could be the compounds responsible for the α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Abbreviations Used: ABTS: 2,2'-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), DPPH: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, FRAP: Ferric ion-reducing antioxidant power, LC/MS: Liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy, AGEs: Advanced glycation end products, TLC: Thin-layer chromatography, MeOH: Methanol, PNP-G: ρ-Nitrophenyl-α-D-Glucoside, R2: Coefficient of determination, mgQE: Milligram quercetin equivalent, mgTAE: Milligram tannic acid equivalent, mgCE: Milligram catechin equivalent, g: Gram. PMID: 29568191 [PubMed]

Assessment of a colorimetric method for the measurement of low concentrations of peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide in water.

Assessment of a colorimetric method for the measurement of low concentrations of peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide in water. Talanta. 2018 Jun 01;183:209-215 Authors: Domínguez-Henao L, Turolla A, Monticelli D, Antonelli M Abstract The recent growing interest in peracetic acid (PAA) as disinfectant for wastewater treatment demands reliable and readily-available methods for its measurement. In detail, the monitoring of PAA in wastewater treatment plants requires a simple, accurate, rapid and inexpensive measurement procedure. In the present work, a method for analyzing low concentrations of PAA, adapted from the US EPA colorimetric method for total chlorine, is assessed. This method employs N,N-diethyl-p-phenylelnediamine (DPD) in the presence of an excess of iodide in a phosphate buffer system. Pink colored species are produced proportionally to the concentration of PAA in the sample. Considering that PAA is available commercially as an equilibrium solution of PAA and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a measurement method for H2O2 is also investigated. This method, as the one for the determination of PAA, is also based on the oxidation of iodide to iodine, with the difference that ammonium molybdate Mo(VI) is added to catalyze the oxidation reaction between H2O2 and iodide, quantifying the total peroxides (PAA+ H2O2). The two methods are suitable for concentration ranges from about 0.1-1.65 mg L-1 and from about 0.3-3.3 mg L-1, respectively for PAA and H2O2. Moreover, the work elucidates some relevant aspects related to the operational conditions, kinetics and the possible interference of H2O2 on PAA measurement. PMID: 29567166 [PubMed - in process]

Acidocalcisome-Mitochondrion Membrane Contact Sites in Trypanosoma brucei.

Related Articles Acidocalcisome-Mitochondrion Membrane Contact Sites in Trypanosoma brucei. Pathogens. 2018 Mar 22;7(2): Authors: Ramakrishnan S, Asady B, Docampo R Abstract Membrane contact sites are regions of close apposition between two organelles, typically less than 30 nanometers apart, that facilitate transfer of biomolecules. The presence of contact sites has been demonstrated in yeast, plants, and mammalian cells. Here, we investigated the presence of such contact sites in Trypanosoma brucei. In mammalian cells, endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria contact sites facilitate mitochondrial uptake of Ca2+ released by the ER-located inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP₃R). However, the InsP₃R in trypanosomes localizes to acidocalcisomes, which serve as major Ca2+ stores in these parasites. In this work, we have used super-resolution structured illumination microscopy and electron microscopy to identify membrane contact sites that exist between acidocalcisomes and mitochondria. Furthermore, we have confirmed the close association of these organelles using proximity ligation assays. Characterization of these contact sites may be a necessary starting point towards unraveling the role of Ca2+ in regulating trypanosome bioenergetics. PMID: 29565282 [PubMed]

Antioxidant Properties of Crocus Sativus L. and its Constituents and Relevance to Neurodegenerative Diseases; Focus on Alzheimer's And Parkinson's disease.

Related Articles Antioxidant Properties of Crocus Sativus L. and its Constituents and Relevance to Neurodegenerative Diseases; Focus on Alzheimer's And Parkinson's disease. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2018 Mar 20;: Authors: Hatziagapiou K, Kakouri E, Lambrou GI, Bethanis K, Tarantilis PA Abstract BACKGROUND: Reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species, which are collectively called reactive oxygen nitrogen species, are inevitable by-products of cellular metabolic redox reactions, such as oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, phagocytosis, reactions of biotransformation of exogenous and endogenous substrata in endoplasmic reticulum, eicosanoid synthesis, and redox reactions in the presence of metal with variable valence. Among medicinal plants there is growing interest in Crocus Sativus L. It is a perennial, stemless herb, belonging to Iridaceae family, cultivated in various countries such as Greece, Italy, Spain, Israel, Morocco, Turkey, Iran, India, China, Egypt and Mexico. OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to address the protective role of Crocus Sativus L. in neurodegeneration with emphasis in Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An electronic literature search was conducted by two of the authors from 1993 to August 2017. Original articles and systematic reviews (with or without meta-analysis), as well as case reports were selected. Titles and abstracts of papers were screened by a third reviewer to determine whether they met the eligibility criteria, and full texts of the selected articles were retrieved. RESULTS: Hence, authors focused on the literature concerning the role of Crocus Sativus L. on its anti-oxidant and neuroprotective properties. CONCLUSION: Literature findings represented in current review herald promising results for using Crocus Sativus L. and/or its active constituents as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective agents. PMID: 29564976 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Regulatable Lentiviral Hematopoietic Stem Cell Gene Therapy in a Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease.

Related Articles Regulatable Lentiviral Hematopoietic Stem Cell Gene Therapy in a Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease. Stem Cells Dev. 2018 Mar 21;: Authors: Ge G, Chen C, Guderyon MJ, Liu J, He Z, Yu Y, Clark RA, Li S Abstract Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) exhibits potent neuroprotective properties in preclinical models of Parkinson's disease (PD), but challenges in GDNF delivery have been reported from clinical trials. To address this barrier, we developed a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) -based macrophage-mediated GDNF therapy platform. Here we introduced a regulatable lentiviral vector (LV-MSP-Tet-Off-hGDNF) in order to allow the expression of human GDNF to be adjusted or stopped by oral administration of doxycycline (Dox). C57BL/6J mice were lethally irradiated with head protection and then transplanted with syngeneic bone marrow cells transduced with either the hGDNF-expressing vector or a corresponding GFP-expressing vector, LV-MSP-Tet-Off-GFP. Suppression of vector gene expression was achieved through administration of Dox in drinking water. To create a toxin-induced Parkinsonian model, mice were injected in two cycles with MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) to yield nigral cell/striatal dopamine loss and behavioral deficits. During the presence of Dox in the drinking water, plasma GDNF was at a basal level, whereas during the absence of Dox, plasma GDNF was significantly elevated, indicating reliable regulation of therapeutic gene expression. Midbrain GDNF levels were altered in parallel, although did not return completely to basal levels during the periods of Dox withdrawal. Motor activities of the MPTP-Tet-off-hGDNF group were comparable to those of the Tet-off-GFP (subject to no MPTP treatment) group, but substantially better than those of the MPTP-Tet-off-GFP group. Interestingly, the improvement in motor activities was sustained during the Dox-withdrawn periods in MPTP-Tet-off-hGDNF animals. Neuroprotection by therapeutic GDNF expression was further evidenced by significant amelioration of nigral tyrosine hydroxylase loss after both the first and second MPTP treatment cycles. These data suggest that neurotrophic factor expression can be upregulated to achieve efficacy or downregulated in case of off-target effects or adverse events, a feature that may eventually increase the acceptance of this potentially neuroprotective/disease-modifying PD therapy. PMID: 29562865 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Paenibacillus nebraskensis sp. nov., isolated from the root surface of field-grown maize.

Related Articles Paenibacillus nebraskensis sp. nov., isolated from the root surface of field-grown maize. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2017 Dec;67(12):4956-4961 Authors: Kämpfer P, Busse HJ, McInroy JA, Hu CH, Kloepper JW, Glaeser SP Abstract A Gram-positive-staining, aerobic, non-endospore-forming bacterial strain (JJ-59T), isolated from a field-grown maize plant in Dunbar, Nebraska in 2014 was studied by a polyphasic approach. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity comparisons, strain JJ-59T was shown to be a member of the genus Paenibacillus, most closely related to the type strains of Paenibacillus aceris (98.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Paenibacillus chondroitinus (97.8 %). For all other type strains of species of the genus Paenibacillus lower 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities were obtained. DNA-DNA hybridization values of strain JJ-59T to the type strains of P. aceris and P. chondroitinus were 26 % (reciprocal, 59 %) and 52 % (reciprocal, 59 %), respectively. Chemotaxonomic characteristics such as the presence of meso-diaminopimelic acid in the peptidoglycan, the major quinone MK-7 and spermidine as the major polyamine were in agreement with the characteristics of the genus Paenibacillus. Strain JJ-59T shared with its next related species P. aceris the major lipids diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and an unidentified aminophospholipid, but the presence/absence of certain lipids was clearly distinguishable. Major fatty acids of strain JJ-59T were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0, and the genomic G+C content is 47.2 mol%. Physiological and biochemical characteristics of strain JJ-59T were clearly different from the most closely related species of the genus Paenibacillus. Thus, strain JJ-59T represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus nebraskensis sp. nov. is proposed, with JJ-59T (=DSM 103623T=CIP 111179T=LMG 29764T) as the type strain. PMID: 29056111 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

[Detection of transgenic components in animal feeds on Shanxi markets].

Related Articles [Detection of transgenic components in animal feeds on Shanxi markets]. Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2016 Nov 25;32(11):1576-1589 Authors: Yuan J, Chang H, Zhao J, Tang Z, Shi Z, Wang J Abstract To assess the presence of genetically modified (GM) maize and soybean in a range of commercialized feed in Shanxi province of China in 2015, improved hexadecyltrimethy ammonium bromide (CTAB) method was used to extract DNA. The screening of packed feeds was carried out by qualitative PCR. Then positive feeds were unpacked and detected by the CaMV 35S promoter, NOS terminator, zSSIIb, Lectin and CryIA (b) genes. The identified maize and soybean events were confirmed by event-specific MON810 and GTS40-3-2. Results showed that 83.3% of the feeds was tested positive for GMOs, in which positive rates of maize, soybean, pig and layer feeds were 6.67%, 100%, 93.3% and 73.3%, respectively. The results of real-time PCR were consistent with qualitative PCR. These results indicated that commercialized GM feed had a wide positive product scope in Shanxi province of China. Further studies are necessary to study effects of feeding livestock and poultry with feed containing GM ingredients on animals and their products. PMID: 29034627 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Effect of drying methods on the structure, thermo and functional properties of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) protein isolate.

Related Articles Effect of drying methods on the structure, thermo and functional properties of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) protein isolate. J Sci Food Agric. 2018 Mar;98(5):1880-1888 Authors: Feyzi S, Varidi M, Zare F, Varidi MJ Abstract BACKGROUND: Different drying methods due to protein denaturation could alter the functional properties of proteins, as well as their structure. So, this study focused on the effect of different drying methods on amino acid content, thermo and functional properties, and protein structure of fenugreek protein isolate. RESULTS: Freeze and spray drying methods resulted in comparable protein solubility, dynamic surface and interfacial tensions, foaming and emulsifying properties except for emulsion stability. Vacuum oven drying promoted emulsion stability, surface hydrophobicity and viscosity of fenugreek protein isolate at the expanse of its protein solubility. Vacuum oven process caused a higher level of Maillard reaction followed by the spray drying process, which was confirmed by the lower amount of lysine content and less lightness, also more browning intensity. ΔH of fenugreek protein isolates was higher than soy protein isolate, which confirmed the presence of more ordered structures. Also, the bands which are attributed to the α-helix structures in the FTIR spectrum were in the shorter wave number region for freeze and spray dried fenugreek protein isolates that show more possibility of such structures. CONCLUSION: This research suggests that any drying method must be conducted in its gentle state in order to sustain native structure of proteins and promote their functionalities. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID: 28898430 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Biosynthesis of Diterpenoids in Tripterygium Adventitious Root Cultures.

Related Articles Biosynthesis of Diterpenoids in Tripterygium Adventitious Root Cultures. Plant Physiol. 2017 Sep;175(1):92-103 Authors: Inabuy FS, Fischedick JT, Lange I, Hartmann M, Srividya N, Parrish AN, Xu M, Peters RJ, Lange BM Abstract Adventitious root cultures were developed from Tripterygium regelii, and growth conditions were optimized for the abundant production of diterpenoids, which can be collected directly from the medium. An analysis of publicly available transcriptome data sets collected with T. regelii roots and root cultures indicated the presence of a large gene family (with 20 members) for terpene synthases (TPSs). Nine candidate diterpene synthase genes were selected for follow-up functional evaluation, of which two belonged to the TPS-c, three to the TPS-e/f, and four to the TPS-b subfamilies. These genes were characterized by heterologous expression in a modular metabolic engineering system in Escherichia coli Members of the TPS-c subfamily were characterized as copalyl diphosphate (diterpene) synthases, and those belonging to the TPS-e/f subfamily catalyzed the formation of precursors of kaurane diterpenoids. The TPS-b subfamily encompassed genes coding for enzymes involved in abietane diterpenoid biosynthesis and others with activities as monoterpene synthases. The structural characterization of diterpenoids accumulating in the medium of T. regelii adventitious root cultures, facilitated by searching the Spektraris online spectral database, enabled us to formulate a biosynthetic pathway for the biosynthesis of triptolide, a diterpenoid with pharmaceutical potential. Considering the significant enrichment of diterpenoids in the culture medium, fast-growing adventitious root cultures may hold promise as a sustainable resource for the large-scale production of triptolide. PMID: 28751314 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Survey of Alternaria Toxins and Other Mycotoxins in Dried Fruits in China.

Related Articles Survey of Alternaria Toxins and Other Mycotoxins in Dried Fruits in China. Toxins (Basel). 2017 Jun 26;9(7): Authors: Wei D, Wang Y, Jiang D, Feng X, Li J, Wang M Abstract Occurrence of toxigenic molds and mycotoxins on dried fruits is a worldwide problem, but limited information is available in China. A total of 220 dried fruits (raisins, dried apricots, dates and wolfberries) purchased from China were analyzed for 17 mycotoxins (i.e., Alternaria toxins, ochratoxin A (OTA), patulin (PAT) and trichothecenes) by UPLC-MS/MS, combined with a single-step cleanup. The result showed that at least one mycotoxin was detected in 142 samples (64.6%). The lowest incidence of contaminated samples was observed in dried apricots (48.2%), and the highest incidence in dried wolfberries (83.3%). The Alternaria toxins seemed to be the major problem in dried fruits, rather than OTA or PAT. Tenuazonic acid (TeA) was the predominant mycotoxin, in both frequency and concentration, ranging from 6.9 to 5665.3 μg kg-1, followed by tentoxin (TEN; 20.5%), and mycophenolic acid (MPA; 19.5%). Moreover, raisins are more likely to be contaminated with OTA than the other dried fruits. Penicillic acid (PA) was detected only in dried dates, and PAT was detected only in one apricot sample. In addition, our results also showed that the simultaneous presence of 2-4 mycotoxins was observed in 31.4% of dried fruits. TeA and TEN were the most frequent combination, detected in 29 (13.2%) samples, followed by TeA and MPA with a prevalence of 11.4%. Therefore, the results of this survey suggest the need for wider monitoring on the contamination of these mycotoxins, especially Alternaria toxins in agro-products, and indicate the importance of setting a maximum limit for Alternaria toxins in China. PMID: 28672847 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

"Ziziphus oxyphylla": Ethnobotanical, ethnopharmacological and phytochemical review.

Related Articles "Ziziphus oxyphylla": Ethnobotanical, ethnopharmacological and phytochemical review. Biomed Pharmacother. 2017 Jul;91:970-998 Authors: Ahmad R, Ahmad N, Naqvi AA Abstract ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ziziphus oxyphylla (ZO) is distributed mainly in tropic and warm temperate regions in the world. Pakistan owns six (06) indigenous species of genus Ziziphus out of which ZO is widely used for traditional treatment of different ailments such as diabetes, jaundice and liver diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present review aims to provide in-depth and comprehensive literature overview, regarding botanical, chemical and biological characteristics of the plant alongwith phytochemical isolation and mechanistic studies to support its folklore and traditional uses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The literature search and relevant information were collected through authentic resources using data bases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and Science Direct, peer reviewed articles, books and thesis. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The phytochemical characterization as well as color tests confirmed the presence of diverse chemical groups presents in the plant such as alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and tannins. In-vivo and in-vitro pharmacological activities for the crude extracts and its fractions revealed potent antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antioxidant, antibacterial as well as acetyl choline esterase and lipoxygenase inhibitory activity. Majority of the isolated compounds belonged to class of Cyclopeptide alkaloids for which the genus is already very famous. Compounds from alkaloids and flavonoids chemical class were isolated and evaluated with a role as antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-glycation and advanced glycation end products inhibitors. No toxicity was observed during cytotoxicity (MRC-5 cell lines), insecticidal and brine shrimp lethality studies. CONCLUSION: The review article supports the folklore uses of this plant in the aforementioned diseases. The plant due to its diverse biological nature may be further studied for mechanistic studies, its anticancer effects as well as its potency and toxicity studies for safe use in human beings. PMID: 28521385 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Cytotoxic mechanism of Baccharis milleflora (Less.) DC. essential oil.

Related Articles Cytotoxic mechanism of Baccharis milleflora (Less.) DC. essential oil. Toxicol In Vitro. 2017 Aug;42:214-221 Authors: Pereira CB, Kanunfre CC, Farago PV, Borsato DM, Budel JM, de Noronha Sales Maia BHL, Campesatto EA, Sartoratto A, Miguel MD, Miguel OG Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic activity of the essential oil from cladodes of Bacharis milleflora in relation to Jurkat, Raji and HL-60 cells, as well as exploring the cell mechanisms in order to elucidate how the cytotoxic process occurs. The presence of the following volatile compounds was detected by GC-MS: bicyclogermacrene (12.16%), germacrene D (11.18%), (E)-caryophyllene (9.28%), and α-humulene (8.05%). In general, IC50 values lower than 50μg/mL were obtained for all the tumor cells at 24, 48 and 72h by MTT assay. The decrease in cell DNA content was demonstrated due to the inhibition of the proliferation of Jurkat, Raji and HL-60 cells by B. milleflora essential oil. In particular, Raji cells presented the greatest inhibition of cell proliferation and they were subsequently used to investigate cell death mechanisms. B. milleflora essential oil promoted G0/G1 arrest and also induced cell fragmentation, which was represented by an increase in the sub-G0 population, indicating cell death induced by apoptosis. The selectivity index was 3.97. Necrotic cell death, coupled with low levels of apoptotic cell death, was observed by conventional EB/AO and Hoechst 33342 staining assays, demonstrating that this essential oil acts via both necrotic and apoptotic mechanisms. PMID: 28476497 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]