Cybermedlife - Therapeutic Actions Placentophagy

Comparison of immunomodulatory effects of placenta mesenchymal stem cells with bone marrow and adipose mesenchymal stem cells.

Abstract Title: Comparison of immunomodulatory effects of placenta mesenchymal stem cells with bone marrow and adipose mesenchymal stem cells. Abstract Source: Int Immunopharmacol. 2012 Apr 6 ;13(2):219-224. Epub 2012 Apr 6. PMID: 22487126 Abstract Author(s): Jung Min Lee, Jieun Jung, Hyun-Jung Lee, Su Jin Jeong, Kyung Jin Cho, Seong-Gyu Hwang, Gi Jin Kim Article Affiliation: Department of Internal Medicine, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, 351 Yatap-dong, Bundang-gu, Seongnam 463-712, Republic of Korea. Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are powerful sources for cell therapy in regenerative medicine because they can be isolated from various tissues, expanded, and induced into multiple-lineages. Of note, their immunomodulatory effects maximize the therapeutic effects of stem cells engrafted on host, making them an especially attractive choice. Recently, several varieties of placenta-derived stem cells (PDSCs) including chorionic plate-derived MSCs (CP-MSCs) have been suggested as alternative sources of stem cells. However, comparative studies of immunomodulatory effects for CP-MSCs among various MSCs are largely lacking. We examined and compared immunomodulatory function of CP-MSCs with that of BM-MSCs and AD-MSCs using co-culture system with activated T-cells derived from human umbilical cord blood (UCB) exposed to anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 which are T-cell activating monoclonal antibodies. All MSCs expressed markers of stem cells and three germ layers by RT-PCR. These cells also exhibited comparable immunomodulatory effects when they were co-cultured with activated T-cells in dose-dependent manner. However, expression of HLA-ABC and HLA-G was highly positive in CP-MSCs compared to other MSCs, and higher levels of cytokines of IL-2, IL-4, IL-13, and GM-CSF were detected in dose-dependent manner in CP-MSCs. Taken together, the results of the present study suggest that while CP-MSCs, BM-MSCs, and AD-MSCs all have immunomodulatory effects, CP-MSCs may have additional advantage over the other MSCs in terms of immunomodulation. In conjunction with other previous studies, CP-MSCs are suggested to be a useful stem cell source in cell therapy. Article Published Date : Apr 06, 2012

Reduction of tumorigenicity by placental extracts. 📎

Abstract Title: Reduction of tumorigenicity by placental extracts. Abstract Source: Anticancer Res. 2012 Apr ;32(4):1153-61. PMID: 22493344 Abstract Author(s): Annette M Marleau, Greg McDonald, James Koropatnick, Chien-Shing Chen, David Koos Article Affiliation: Department of Immunology, Institute of Molecular Medicine, 16731 Gothard St Unit H, Huntington Beach, CA 92647, U.S.A. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.. Abstract: The influence of adult stem cells on tumor growth is paradoxical. On one hand, angiogenic factors secreted by stem cells are known to be essential for tumor vascularization. On the other hand, stem cell-derived factors can reportedly induce tumor differentiation or direct death of tumor cells. Both the placenta and umbilical cord are rich sources of stem cells with immune modulatory and tissue-healing properties; however, the effects of placental components on cancer cells have not been fully defined. Here we demonstrate that extracts of placental lysates reduce the malignancy of a variety of human tumor cell lines in a species-unrestricted manner. Using a standard model of leukemia cell differentiation, we demonstrated that addition of placental extracts to tumor cells, or co-culture of tumor cells with the CD34(+) cells from umbilical cord blood, induced tumor cell differentiation. Inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis in vivo was also observed following administration of placental extracts. These data support the concept of non-toxic biological therapy of cancer using stem cell derivatives, possibly through the induction of tumor cell differentiation. Article Published Date : Apr 01, 2012

Neuroprotective Effect of Human Placenta-derived Cell Treatment of Stroke in Rats. 📎

Abstract Title: Neuroprotective Effect of Human Placenta-derived Cell Treatment of Stroke in Rats. Abstract Source: Cell Transplant. 2012 Mar 28. Epub 2012 Mar 28. PMID: 22469567 Abstract Author(s): Jieli Chen, Amjad Shehadah, Ajai Pal, Alex Zacharek, Xu Cui, Yishen Cui, Cynthia Roberts, Mei Lu, Andrew Zeitlin, Robert Hariri, Michael Chopp Abstract: Background: Human placenta-derived adherent (PDA001) cells are mesenchymal-like stem cells isolated from postpartum human placenta. In this study, we tested whether intravenously-infused PDA001 improves neurological functional recovery after stroke in rats. In addition, potential mechanisms underlying the PDA001-induced neuroprotective effect were investigated.Methods: Young adult male rats (2-3 months) were subjected to 2h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) and treated with PDA001 (4x10⁶) or vehicle controls (Dextran vehicle or phosphate buffer saline (PBS)) via intravenous (IV) administration initiated at 4h after MCAo. A battery of functional tests and measurements of lesion volume and apoptotic cells were performed. Immunostaining and ELISA assays for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were performed in the ischemic brain to test the potential mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of PDA001 cell treatment of stroke.Results: PDA001 cell treatment at 4h post stroke significantly improved functional outcome, and as well as significantly decreased lesion volume, TUNEL and cleaved-Caspase-3 positive cell number in the ischemic brain, compared to MCAo-vehicle and MCAo-PBS control. Treatment of stroke with PDA001 cells also significantly increased HGF and VEGF expression inthe ischemic border zone (IBZ) compared to controls. Using ELISA assays, treatment of stroke with PDA001 cells significantly increased VEGF, HGF and BDNF levels in the ischemic brain compared to controls.Conclusion: When administered intravenously at 4h after MCAo, PDA001 cells promoted neuroprotective effects. These effects induced by PDA001 cell treatment may be related to the increase of VEGF, HGF and BDNF expression and a decrease of apoptosis. PDA001 cells may provide a viable cell source to treat stroke. Article Published Date : Mar 28, 2012

Human umbilical cord is a unique and safe source of various types of stem cells suitable for treatment of hematological diseases and for regenerative medicine.

Abstract Title: Human umbilical cord is a unique and safe source of various types of stem cells suitable for treatment of hematological diseases and for regenerative medicine. Abstract Source: Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2012 Mar 23. Epub 2012 Mar 23. PMID: 22446302 Abstract Author(s): Elvira Pelosi, Germana Castelli, Ugo Testa Abstract: Cord blood (CB) is a rich source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and for this reason CB transplantation has been used successfully for the treatment of some malignant and nonmalignant diseases. However, this technique is limited by the relatively low number of HSCs present in each CB unit and by the delayed engraftment of platelets and neutrophils. To bypass these obstacles efforts have been made to develop strategies to expand CB HSCs in vitro for transplantation. CB is also an important source of other stem cells, including endothelial progenitors, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), very small embryonic/epiblast-like (VSEL) stem cells, and unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSC), potentially suitable for use in regenerative medicine. For some of these stem cell populations, such as MSCs, clinical studies have been started and for other stem cell populations potential clinical applications have been identified and clinical studies will follow. In addition to CB, other parts of umbilical cord, such as the Wharton's jelly, or tissues strictly linked such as the placenta are also rich sources of stem cells. Article Published Date : Mar 23, 2012

Novel uses of afterbirth tissues in regenerative medicine

Abstract Title: [Novel uses of afterbirth tissues in regenerative medicine]. Abstract Source: Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol. 2012 Feb ;216(1):27-33. Epub 2012 Feb 13. PMID: 22331525 Abstract Author(s): M Hoenicka, V R Jacobs, M Niemeyer, H Bronger, K T M Schneider, M Kiechle, G Huber, B Seelbach-Göbel, J Burkhart, J Hammer, D Liepsch, C Schmid, D E Birnbaum Article Affiliation: Klinik für Herz-, Thorax- und herznahe Gefässchirurgie, Klinikum der Universität Regensburg, Germany. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Afterbirth tissues, which include the umbilical cord, placenta, amnion, and cord blood, are usually discarded. Recent progress in regenerative medicine suggests that we re-evaluate these tissues and assess their therapeutic potential. METHODS: Firstly the unique properties of afterbirth tissues and their current use in regenerative medicine are summarised. Then we introduce the cooperation of our institutions and our experiences regarding the collection and utilisation of afterbirth tissues. RESULTS: A literature survey suggests that besides the well-known transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells from cord blood, afterbirth tissues were also used as a source of stem cells, progenitor cells, differentiated cells, and blood vessels for tissue engineering purposes. According to our own experience, the two participating OB/GYN departments and the blood donation service were able to organise a sufficient supply of umbilical cords for research purposes. The yield correlated with incentives for the midwives. A total of more than 4,300 cords was collected for experiments designed to create small caliber vessel grafts. The contamination rate was low. Birth mode significantly affected umbilical vein function, whereas ischaemia for up to 40 h did not have any deleterious effects. Umbilical veins were cryopreserved with a moderate loss of function. Fresh umbilical veins were endothelium-denuded and reseeded with endothelial cells harvested from coronary artery disease patients to generate an autologous surface. CONCLUSIONS: Afterbirth tissues have unique properties which make them ideally suited for regenerative medicine. These tissues can be procured and utilised in research facilities even in the absence of an in-house birthing centre. Article Published Date : Feb 01, 2012

Human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells do not transform to tumor-associated fibroblasts in the presence of breast and ovarian cancer cells unlike bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

Abstract Title: Human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells do not transform to tumor-associated fibroblasts in the presence of breast and ovarian cancer cells unlike bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Abstract Source: J Cell Biochem. 2012 Jan 10. Epub 2012 Jan 10. PMID: 22234854 Abstract Author(s): Arjunan Subramanian, Gan Shu-Uin, Ngo Kae-Siang, Kalamegam Gauthaman, Arijit Biswas, Mahesh Choolani, Ariff Bongso, Fong Chui-Yee Article Affiliation: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Kent Ridge, Singapore 119074. Abstract: Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSCs) were shown to transform into tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAFs) when in the vicinity of breast cancer tumors and played an important role in tumor enhancement and metastasis. In early human development MSCs migrating from the yolk sac and aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) via the umbilical cord to the placenta and back to the fetal bone marrow were shown to get trapped in the gelatinous Wharton's jelly of the umbilical cord. The common origin of the Wharton's jelly MSCs and the finally homed hBMMSCs prompted us to evaluate whether hWJSCs are also involved in TAF transformation. hWJSCs and hBMMSCs were grown in the presence of breast and ovarian cancer cell conditioned medium (MDA-TCM, TOV-TCM) for 30 days. No changes were observed in the hWJSCs but the hBMMSCs transformed from short to thin long fibroblasts, their proliferation rates increased and CD marker expression decreased. The transformed hBMMSCs showed positive staining for the tumor-associated markers FSP, VEGF, EGF and Tn-C. Real-time PCR and multiplex luminex bead analysis showed upregulation of TAF-related genes (FSP, FAP, Tn-C, Tsp-1, EGF, bFGF, IL-6, a-SMA, VEGF and TGF-β) for hBMMSCs with low expression for hWJSCs. The luciferase assay showed that hWJSCs previously exposed to MDA-TCM or TOV-TCM had no stimulatory growth effect on luciferase-tagged MDA or TOV cells unlike hBMMSCs. The results confirmed that hWJSCs do not transform to the TAF phenotype and may therefore not be associated with enhanced growth of solid tumors making them a safe MSC for cell based therapies. J. Cell. Biochem. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Article Published Date : Jan 10, 2012

Long-term cultured human term placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells of maternal origin displays plasticity. 📎

Abstract Title: Long-term cultured human term placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells of maternal origin displays plasticity. Abstract Source: Stem Cells Int. 2012 ;2012:174328. Epub 2012 Mar 26. PMID: 22550499 Abstract Author(s): Vikram Sabapathy, Saranya Ravi, Vivi Srivastava, Alok Srivastava, Sanjay Kumar Article Affiliation: Center for Stem Cell Research, Christian Medical College, Bagayam, Vellore 632002, India. Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an alluring therapeutic resource because of their plasticity, immunoregulatory capacity and ease of availability. Human BM-derived MSCs have limited proliferative capability, consequently, it is challenging to use in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. Hence, placental MSCs of maternal origin, which is one of richest sources of MSCs were chosen to establish long-term culture from the cotyledons of full-term human placenta. Flow analysis established bonafied MSCs phenotypic characteristics, staining positively for CD29, CD73, CD90, CD105 and negatively for CD14, CD34, CD45 markers. Pluripotency of the cultured MSCs was assessed by in vitro differentiation towards not only intralineage cells like adipocytes, osteocytes, chondrocytes, and myotubules cells but also translineage differentiated towards pancreatic progenitor cells, neural cells, and retinal cells displaying plasticity. These cells did not significantly alter cell cycle or apoptosis pattern while maintaining the normal karyotype; they also have limited expression of MHC-II antigens and are Naive for stimulatory factors CD80 and CD 86. Further soft agar assays revealed that placental MSCs do not have the ability to form invasive colonies. Taking together all these characteristics into consideration, it indicates that placental MSCs could serve as good candidates for development and progress of stem-cell based therapeutics. Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2012

Amniotic epithelial cells from the human placenta potently suppress a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. 📎

Abstract Title: Amniotic epithelial cells from the human placenta potently suppress a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. Abstract Source: PLoS One. 2012 ;7(4):e35758. Epub 2012 Apr 26. PMID: 22563398 Abstract Author(s): Yu Han Liu, Vijesh Vaghjiani, Jing Yang Tee, Kelly To, Peng Cui, Ding Yuan Oh, Ursula Manuelpillai, Ban-Hock Toh, James Chan Article Affiliation: Centre for Inflammatory Diseases, Department of Medicine, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia. Abstract: Human amniotic epithelial cells (hAEC) have stem cell-like features and immunomodulatory properties. Here we show that hAEC significantly suppressed splenocyte proliferation in vitro and potently attenuated a mouse model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Central nervous system (CNS) CD3(+) T cell and F4/80(+) monocyte/macrophage infiltration and demyelination were significantly reduced with hAEC treatment. Besides the known secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), we report the novel finding that hAEC utilize transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) for immunosuppression. Neutralization of TGF-β or PGE2 in splenocyte proliferation assays significantly reduced hAEC-induced suppression. Splenocytes from hAEC-treated mice showed a Th2 cytokine shift with significantly elevated IL-5 production. While transferred CFSE-labeled hAEC couldbe detected in the lung, none were identified in the CNS or in lymphoid organs. This is the first report documenting the therapeutic effect of hAEC in a MS-like model and suggest that hAEC may have potential for use as therapy for MS. Article Published Date : Jan 01, 2012

In search of human placentophagy: a cross-cultural survey of human placenta consumption, disposal practices, and cultural beliefs.

Abstract Title: In search of human placentophagy: a cross-cultural survey of human placenta consumption, disposal practices, and cultural beliefs. Abstract Source: Ecol Food Nutr. 2010 Nov-Dec;49(6):467-84. PMID: 21888574 Abstract Author(s): Sharon M Young, Daniel C Benyshek Article Affiliation: Department of Anthropology, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154-5003, USA. Abstract: Maternal placentophagy, the consumption of the placenta or"afterbirth"by the mother following parturition, is an ubiquitous behavior among eutherian mammals, including non-human primates. Here we report on a cross-cultural survey of 179 human societies regarding the consumption, treatment, and disposal of human placenta, in addition to accompanying cultural beliefs and perceptions about the organ. The conspicuous absence of cultural traditions associated with maternal placentophagy in the cross-cultural ethnographic record raises interesting questions relative to its ubiquitous presence among nearly all other mammals, and the reasons for its absence (or extreme rarity) among prehistoric/historic and contemporary human cultures. Article Published Date : Nov 01, 2010

Effects of placentophagy on serum prolactin and progesterone concentrations in rats after parturition or superovulation. 📎

Abstract Title: Effects of placentophagy on serum prolactin and progesterone concentrations in rats after parturition or superovulation. Abstract Source: J Reprod Fertil. 1980 Nov ;60(2):273-8. PMID: 7431335 Abstract Author(s): M S Blank, H G Friesen Abstract: In rats that were allowed to eat the placentae after parturition concentrations of serum prolactin were elevated on Day 1 but concentrations of serum progesterone were depressed on Days 6 and 8 post partum when compared to those of rats prevented from eating the placentae. In rats treated with PMSG to induce superovulation serum prolactin and progesterone values were significantly (P<0.05) elevated on Days 3 and 5 respectively, after being fed 2 g rat placenta/day for 2 days. However, feeding each rat 4 g placenta/day significantly (P<0.02) lowered serum progesterone on Day 5. Oestrogen injections or bovine or human placenta in the diet had no effect. The organic phase of a petroleum ether extract of rat placenta (2 g-equivalents/day) lowered peripheral concentrations of progesterone on Day 5, but other extracts were ineffective. We conclude that the rat placenta contains orally-active substance(s) which modify blood levels of pituitary and ovarian hormones. Article Published Date : Nov 01, 1980
Therapeutic Actions Placentophagy

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Placentophagy among women planning community births in the United States: Frequency, rationale, and associated neonatal outcomes.

Related Articles Placentophagy among women planning community births in the United States: Frequency, rationale, and associated neonatal outcomes. Birth. 2018 Jul 29;: Authors: Farr A, Chervenak FA, McCullough LB, Grünebaum A, Benyshek DC, Cheyney MM, Bovbjerg ML PMID: 30058077 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]