Therapeutic Actions Ice - Application

NCBI pubmed

Bioinspired Materials for Controlling Ice Nucleation, Growth, and Recrystallization.

Related Articles Bioinspired Materials for Controlling Ice Nucleation, Growth, and Recrystallization. Acc Chem Res. 2018 Apr 17;: Authors: He Z, Liu K, Wang J Abstract Ice formation, mainly consisting of ice nucleation, ice growth, and ice recrystallization, is ubiquitous and crucial in wide-ranging fields from cryobiology to atmospheric physics. Despite active research for more than a century, the mechanism of ice formation is still far from satisfactory. Meanwhile, nature has unique ways of controlling ice formation and can provide resourceful avenues to unravel the mechanism of ice formation. For instance, antifreeze proteins (AFPs) protect living organisms from freezing damage via controlling ice formation, for example, tuning ice nucleation, shaping ice crystals, and inhibiting ice growth and recrystallization. In addition, AFP mimics can have applications in cryopreservation of cells, tissues, and organs, food storage, and anti-icing materials. Therefore, continuous efforts have been made to understand the mechanism of AFPs and design AFP inspired materials. In this Account, we first review our recent research progress in understanding the mechanism of AFPs in controlling ice formation. A Janus effect of AFPs on ice nucleation was discovered, which was achieved via selectively tethering the ice-binding face (IBF) or the non-ice-binding face (NIBF) of AFPs to solid surfaces and investigating specifically the effect of the other face on ice nucleation. Through molecular dynamics (MD) simulation analysis, we observed ordered hexagonal ice-like water structure atop the IBF and disordered water structure atop the NIBF. Therefore, we conclude that the interfacial water plays a critical role in controlling ice formation. Next, we discuss the design and fabrication of AFP mimics with capabilities in tuning ice nucleation and controlling ice shape and growth, as well as inhibiting ice recrystallization. For example, we tuned ice nucleation via modifying solid surfaces with supercharged unfolded polypeptides (SUPs) and polyelectrolyte brushes (PBs) with different counterions. We found graphene oxide (GO) and oxidized quasi-carbon nitride quantum dots (OQCNs) had profound effects in controlling ice shape and inhibiting ice growth. We also studied the ion-specific effect on ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) with a large variety of anions and cations. All functionalities are achieved by tuning the properties of interfacial water on these materials, which reinforces the importance of the interfacial water in controlling ice formation. Finally, we review the development of novel application-oriented materials emerging from our enhanced understanding of ice formation, for example, ultralow ice adhesion coatings with aqueous lubricating layer, cryopreservation of cells by inhibiting ice recrystallization, and two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) porous materials with tunable pore sizes through recrystallized ice crystal templates. This Account sheds new light on the molecular mechanism of ice formation and will inspire the design of unprecedented functional materials based on controlled ice formation. PMID: 29664599 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

A comparative trial of ice application versus EMLA cream in alleviation of pain during botulinum toxin injections for palmar hyperhidrosis.

Related Articles A comparative trial of ice application versus EMLA cream in alleviation of pain during botulinum toxin injections for palmar hyperhidrosis. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2018;11:137-140 Authors: Alsantali A Abstract Background: Botulinum toxin is a safe and effective therapy for palmar hyperhidrosis, but the associated pain from injections limits the usefulness of this method of treatment. Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of Eutectic Mixture of Local Anesthetics (EMLA) cream versus ice application in alleviation of pain during botulinum toxin injections for palmar hyperhidrosis. Methods: In this prospective study, 23 patients underwent palm Botox injections to treat their excessive sweating. In each patient, EMLA cream was applied to one palm and ice was applied directly before the injections in the other palm. Pain was evaluated using a Visual Analog Scale. Results: Statistically, there was a significant difference in pain control between EMLA cream group and ice application group (p<0.05). The average pain score on the hands where EMLA cream was applied was 8.9 (SD=0.81), whereas it was 4.8 (±0.9) in the ice group. Conclusion: In this study, the successful use of ice application in reducing pain by 40% in comparison to EMLA cream during Botox toxin injection for palmar hyperhidrosis is demonstrated. PMID: 29662322 [PubMed]