Effects of phlebotomy-induced reduction of body iron stores on metabolic syndrome: results from a randomized clinical trial.
BMC Med. 2012 ;10:54. Epub 2012 May 30. PMID: 22647517
Khosrow S Houschyar, Rainer Lüdtke, Gustav J Dobos, Ulrich Kalus, Martina Broecker-Preuss, Thomas Rampp, Benno Brinkhaus, Andreas Michalsen
Department of Internal Medicine, Kliniken Essen-Mitte, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (METS) is an increasingly prevalent but poorly understood clinical condition characterized by insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity. Increased oxidative stress catalyzed by accumulation of iron in excess of physiologic requirements has been implicated in the pathogenesis of METS, but the relationships between cause and effect remain uncertain. We tested the hypothesis that phlebotomy-induced reduction of body iron stores would alter the clinical presentation of METS, using a randomized trial.
METHODS: In a randomized, controlled, single-blind clinical trial, 64 patients with METS were randomly assigned to iron reduction by phlebotomy (n = 33) or to a control group (n = 31), which was offered phlebotomy at the end of the study (waiting-list design). The iron-reduction patients had 300 ml of blood removed at entry and between 250 and 500 ml removed after 4 weeks, depending on ferritin levels at study entry. Primary outcomes were change in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and insulin sensitivity as measured by Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA) index after 6 weeks. Secondary outcomes included HbA1c, plasma glucose, blood lipids, and heart rate (HR).
RESULTS: SBP decreased from 148.5± 12.3 mmHg to 130.5 ± 11.8 mmHg in the phlebotomy group, and from 144.7 ± 14.4 mmHg to 143.8 ± 11.9 mmHg in the control group (difference -16.6 mmHg; 95% CI -20.7 to -12.5; P<0.001). No significant effect on HOMA index was seen. With regard to secondary outcomes, blood glucose, HbA1c, low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein ratio, and HR were significantly decreased by phlebotomy. Changes in BP and HOMA index correlated with ferritin reduction.
CONCLUSIONS: In patients with METS, phlebotomy, with consecutive reduction of body iron stores, lowered BP and resulted in improvements in markers of cardiovascular risk and glycemic control. Blood donation may have beneficial effects for blood donors with METS.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01328210 Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/53.
Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2011
Genotyping of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Using Allele-Specific qPCR Producing Amplicons of Small Sizes Directly from Crude Serum Isolated from Capillary Blood by a Hand-Powered Paper Centrifuge.
Diagnostics (Basel). 2019 Jan 11;9(1):
Authors: Barra GB, Santa Rita TH, Jardim DP, Mesquita PG, Nobre CS, Jácomo RH, Abdalla Nery LF
The cell-free genomic DNA (gDNA) concentration in serum ranges from 1500 to 7500 copies/mL within 2 h after phlebotomy (6⁻24 times the concentration observed in plasma). Here, we aimed to evaluate the gDNA size distribution in serum with time after coagulation and to test if crude serum can be directly used as a source of gDNA for qPCR. Next, we investigated if single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could be genotyped directly from the crude serum isolated from capillary blood using a hand-powered paper centrifuge. All tested PCR targets (65, 100, 202 and 688 base pairs) could be successfully amplified from DNA extracted from serum, irrespective of their amplicon size. The observed qPCR quantitation cycles suggested that the genomic DNA yield increased in serum with incubation at room temperature. Additionally, only 65 and 101 base pair qPCR targets could be amplified from crude serum soon after the coagulation. Incubation for 4 days at room temperature was necessary for the amplification of PCR targets of 202 base pairs. The 688 base pair qPCR target could not be amplified from serum directly. Lastly, serum was successfully separated from capillary blood using the proposed paper centrifuge and the genotypes were assigned by testing the crude serum using allele-specific qPCR, producing small amplicon sizes in complete agreement with the genotypes assigned by testing the DNA extracted from whole blood. The serum can be used directly as the template in qPCR for SNP genotyping, especially if small amplicon sizes are applied. This shortcut in the SNP genotyping process could further molecular point-of-care diagnostics due to elimination of the DNA extraction step.
PMID: 30641881 [PubMed]